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Interaction, bond and attachment within diverse infants' and toddlers relations and contexts


Unfolding from previous and current projects of the group, who have been investigating the development of communication, language, expressiveness and affectivity in infants and toddlers, some questions have emerged regarding the interaction and the bonds formation early in life. In the literature, these issues have been studied, overwhelmingly, by Bowlby's Attachment Theory. However, a number of critics related to it have been raised: the studies almost exclusively focus on the child's relationship with his/her mother; announced psychopathologies when the child is in nondomestic environment or without the presence of the mother; the lack of consideration of cultural and contextual elements; the methodology that do not capture the dynamics and the systemic and dialogic elements, among others. Thus, the group has been repeatedly inquiring about interactive processes of young children with partners other than the mother; and if these others partners (including peers) would make possible the construction of zones of proximal development. At the core of interactions, whether and how these could result in building bonds - in addition to the mother, as the father, age peers and employees of shelters? Still, how could we study not only bond construction, but processes of (re)(de)construction of the bonds. Thus, the project goal was defined as to develop a body of researches that seeks to investigate issues related to interactive processes; and, among these, how does it occur the establishment, (re)(de)construction and maintenance of bonds, in different relationships and sociocultural contexts. This work will be conducted through a number of investigations (undergraduate, masters and doctorate), within the institution (USP) and through an agreement with an international institution (University of Tampere, Finland), from multiple case studies, with a systemic and dialogical perspective, using for this the Network of Meanings. The work was organized in two lines (which are intertwined): one related to the interaction of infants and young children with their peers in institutional settings; and, the other following up diverse relationships and affective bonds construction, in different contexts. The cases will be, mostly, videotaped in naturalistic environments, longitudinally, over six to twelve months. The analysis of the material will be microgenetic. This line of research is understood as significant, as it seeks to rupture with a research perspective which usually works with a set of default behaviors, often limiting themselves to the investigation of populations called "normal" or which are more frequent within population. Given the history of humanity (with all its (a)d(i)versities of conditions) and considered the human brain plasticity, it is understood that the developmental pathway could not occur only through a single path (normal child without disabilities) and in particular conditions (baby with the mother in the home environment). The goal is thus to study these processes under various conditions, to seize evidence to indicate different features, pathways and potential development. In the project, besides deepening the theme, it is intended to promote academic achievement of undergraduate and postgraduate students, publish articles in recognized journals, set international exchanges already established, organize symposium with recognized national researchers and product materials for non-academic environments. (AU)

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(References retrieved automatically from Web of Science and SciELO through information on FAPESP grants and their corresponding numbers as mentioned in the publications by the authors)
KAIRA NEDER; LUDMILLA D. M. P. FERREIRA; KATIA DE SOUZA AMORIM. Coconstrução do apego no primeiro semestre de vida: o papel do outro nessa constituição. Psicologia USP, v. 31, . (16/13268-0, 13/17215-0, 16/24717-0)

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