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The European Union's Water Framework Directive: applications to Brazilian reservoirs reality

Abstract

Numerous reservoirs in São Paulo State have their watersheds occupied by many urban and agricultural areas uses and fewer remaining vegetation. In general, their watersheds have restricted wastewater treatment. Intense uses, added to incipient sanitary coverage, confer worrying future for these reservoirs, already observed in Billings and Guarapiranga Reservoirs, both located in São Paulo city. These dams have a negative history in the water and sediments quality, culminating with about 40 years of intense applications of copper sulfate and hydrogen peroxide to cyanobacteria control. This scenario suggests that the Brazilian normative are not enough to stop or even reduce environmental impacts on water quality and sediment. This manner is necessary meets its goals of ensuring the availability of adequate water quality standards for current and future generations and promote the rational and integrated use of water resources. In the Water Framework Directive (WFD), the European water resources management system, the water quality is not linked to the use but the ecological quality of the environment. The WFD adopts ecosystem approach in order that water bodies achieve minimal degradation state. In 'good conditions', physical, chemical, biological and hydromorphological conditions have 'slight' deviation from the conditions of the water body without human action. For reservoirs, the scope of the 'good ecological status' would be the destruction of the dam to restore the natural flow of rivers, which is not feasible. Under like conditions the WFD allows to identify and designate artificial and heavily modified water bodies and water bodies, rather than good ecological status for artificial water bodies and heavily modified water bodies the goal is to achieve good ecological potential and good chemical status surface water, taking into account the goals for which these water bodies were created. In Brazil there are few studies based on the WFD, highlighting work of the Laboratory of Limnology (USP, IB, Department of Ecology). The work performed by this group suggests the possibility of adapting the WFD to the Brazilian reality, with regard to ecological aspects. They also suggest that the experience could be strengthened in the São Paulo State, where there is adequate management structure in relation to other regions of the country, with expanded monitoring network and database, numerous expert, consistent laboratories and methodologies, for example. The aim this work is apply the WFD concepts to São Paulo State reservoirs, adapting the WFD to Brazilian reality, as needed. In this research, emphasis will be given to the ecological approach, considering the typology, the establishment of reference conditions, the assessment of ecological status and the analysis of pressures in the basin, mostly. It is hoped to establish reference conditions for each type of water body classified by the typology and establish responsive index to degradation, for establishing the ecological potential of reservoirs in the São Paulo State. Thus this project aims to: investigate the trophic history through the nutrients analysis (nitrogen and phosphorus in water and sediment) and fossil pigments in sediments and to determine reference values for each of three reservoirs of predetermined typology; establish baseline concentrations for some metals in the sediment; investigate the sediment quality, through the historical accumulation of these metals; investigate the suitability of water quality indices based on phytoplankton established by the WFD to Brazilian reservoirs; establish an index of ecological potential for Brazilian reservoirs, based on the positioning of phytoplankton species along the trophic gradient. We also intend to propose the definition of typologies for the water bodies in the state. (AU)

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Scientific publications (17)
(References retrieved automatically from Web of Science and SciELO through information on FAPESP grants and their corresponding numbers as mentioned in the publications by the authors)
CARDOSO-SILVA, SHEILA; SOARES SILVA MIZAEL, JULIANA OLIVEIRA; FRASCARELI, DANIELE; LOPES FIGUEIRA, RUBENS CESAR; POMPEO, MARCELO; VICENTE, EDUARDO; MOSCHINI-CARLOS, VIVIANE. Geochemistry and sedimentary photopigments as proxies to reconstruct past environmental changes in a subtropical reservoir. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, JAN 2022. Web of Science Citations: 0.
CARDOSO-SILVA, SHEILA; SOARES SILVA MIZAEL, JULIANA OLIVEIRA; FRASCARELI, DANIELE; DE LIMA FERREIRA, PAULO ALVES; ROSA, ANDRE HENRIQUE; VICENTE, EDUARDO; LOPES FIGUEIRA, RUBENS CESAR; POMPEO, MARCELO L. M.; MOSCHINI-CARLOS, VIVIANE. Paleolimnological evidence of environmental changes in seven subtropical reservoirs based on metals, nutrients, and sedimentation rates. CATENA, v. 206, NOV 2021. Web of Science Citations: 0.
CARDOSO-SILVA, SHEILA; FRASCARELI, DANIELE; SILVA, DANIEL C. V. R.; LOPES FIGUEIRA, RUBENS CESAR; BITTENCOURT, MARISA DANTAS; MOSCHINI-CARLOS, VIVIANE; POMPEO, MARCELO. An abiotic typology and reference conditions for nutrients and chlorophyll-a in subtropical reservoirs (Sao Paulo State, Brazil). Environmental Science and Pollution Research, v. 28, n. 13, p. 16029-16041, APR 2021. Web of Science Citations: 1.
DE SOUSA, MARIANA LOPES; DOS SANTOS, DEBORAH YARA ALVES CURSINO; CHOW, FUNGYI; POMPEO, MARCELO LUIZ MARTINS. Caffeine as a contaminant of periphyton: ecological changes and impacts on primary producers. ECOTOXICOLOGY, v. 30, n. 4 MAR 2021. Web of Science Citations: 0.
SILVA, DANIEL C. V. R.; QUEIROZ, LUCAS G.; MARASSI, RODRIGO J.; ARAUJO, CRISTIANO V. M.; BAZZAN, THIAGO; CARDOSO-SILVA, SHEILA; SILVA, GILMAR C.; MULLER, M.; SILVA, FLAVIO T.; MONTAGNER, CASSIANA C.; PAIVA, TERESA C. B.; POMPEO, MARCELO L. M. Predicting zebrafish spatial avoidance triggered by discharges of dairy wastewater: An experimental approach based on self-purification in a model river. Environmental Pollution, v. 266, n. 2 NOV 2020. Web of Science Citations: 0.
SOARES SILVA MIZAEL, JULIANA DE OLIVEIRA; CARDOSO-SILVA, SHEILA; FRASCARELI, DANIELE; MARTINS POMPEO, MARCELO LUIZ; MOSCHINI-CARLOS, VIVIANE. Ecosystem history of a tropical reservoir revealed by metals, nutrients and photosynthetic pigments preserved in sediments. CATENA, v. 184, JAN 2020. Web of Science Citations: 0.
FREDERICO G.S. BEGHELLI; MAURÍCIO CETRA; MERCEDES MARCHESE; JÚLIO CÉSAR LÓPEZ-DOVÁL; ANDRÉ H. ROSA; MARCELO L. M. POMPÊO; VIVIANE MOSCHINI-CARLOS. Taxonomic and non-taxonomic responses of benthic macroinvertebrates to metal toxicity in tropical reservoirs. The case of Cantareira Complex, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, v. 92, n. 2, p. -, 2020. Web of Science Citations: 1.
SOUSA, MARIANA L.; CHOW, FUNGYI; POMPEO, MARCELO L. M. Community-level changes in periphytic biofilm caused by copper contamination. JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYCOLOGY, v. 31, n. 4, p. 2401-2410, AUG 2019. Web of Science Citations: 0.
SILVA, DANIEL C. V. R.; ARAUJO, CRISTIANO V. M.; MARASSI, RODRIGO J.; CARDOSO-SILVA, SHEILA; NETO, MORUN B.; SILVA, GILMAR C.; RIBEIRO, RUI; SILVA, FLAVIO T.; PAIVA, TERESA C. B.; POMPEO, MARCELO L. M. Influence of interspecific interactions on avoidance response to contamination. Science of The Total Environment, v. 642, p. 824-831, NOV 15 2018. Web of Science Citations: 3.
DE SOUZA BEGHELLI, FREDERICO GUILHERME; CESAR LOPEZ-DOVAL, JULIO; HENRIQUE ROSA, ANDRE; POMPEO, MARCELO; MOSCHINI CARLOS, VIVIANE. Lethal and sublethal effects of metal-polluted sediments on Chironomus sancticaroli Strixino and Strixino, 1981. ECOTOXICOLOGY, v. 27, n. 3, p. 286-299, APR 2018. Web of Science Citations: 1.
FRASCARELI, DANIELE; CARDOSO-SILVA, SHEILA; SOARES-SILVA MIZAEL, JULIANA DE OLIVEIRA; ROSA, ANDRE HENRIQUE; MARTINS POMPEO, MARCELO LUIZ; CESAR LOPEZ-DOVAL, JULIO; MOSCHINI-CARLOS, VIVIANE. Spatial distribution, bioavailability, and toxicity of metals in surface sediments of tropical reservoirs, Brazil. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT, v. 190, n. 4 APR 2018. Web of Science Citations: 5.
SILVA, DANIEL C. V. R.; ARAUJO, CRISTIANO V. M.; FRANCA, FERNANDA M.; NETO, MORUN B.; PAIVA, TERESA C. B.; SILVA, FLAVIO T.; POMPEO, MARCELO L. M. Bisphenol risk in fish exposed to a contamination gradient: Triggering of spatial avoidance. AQUATIC TOXICOLOGY, v. 197, p. 1-6, APR 2018. Web of Science Citations: 8.
ARAUJO, CRISTIANO V. M.; SILVA, DANIEL C. V. R.; GOMES, LUIZ E. T.; ACAYABA, RAPHAEL D.; MONTAGNER, CASSIANA C.; MOREIRA-SANTOS, MATILDE; RIBEIRO, RUI; POMPEO, MARCELO L. M. Habitat fragmentation caused by contaminants: Atrazine as a chemical barrier isolating fish populations. Chemosphere, v. 193, p. 24-31, FEB 2018. Web of Science Citations: 14.
ALINE MARTINS VICENTIN; EDUARDO HENRIQUE COSTA RODRIGUES; VIVIANE MOSCHINI-CARLOS; MARCELO LUIZ MARTINS POMPÊO. Is it possible to evaluate the ecological status of a reservoir using the phytoplankton community?. Acta Limnol. Bras., v. 30, p. -, 2018.
CARDOSO-SILVA, S.; MEIRELLES, S. T.; FRASCARELI, D.; LOPEZ-DOVAL, J. C.; ROSA, A. H.; MOSCHINI-CARLOS, V.; POMPEO, M. Metals in superficial sediments of a cascade multisystem reservoir: contamination and potential ecological risk. ENVIRONMENTAL EARTH SCIENCES, v. 76, n. 22 NOV 2017. Web of Science Citations: 1.
SILVA, DANIEL C. V. R.; ARAUJO, CRISTIANO V. M.; LOPEZ-DOVAL, JULIO C.; NETO, MORUN B.; SILVA, FLAVIO T.; PAIVA, TERESA C. B.; POMPEO, MARCELO L. M. Potential effects of triclosan on spatial displacement and local population decline of the fish Poecilia reticulata using a non-forced system. Chemosphere, v. 184, p. 329-336, OCT 2017. Web of Science Citations: 13.
DE SOUZA BEGHELLI, FREDERICO GUILHERME; FRASCARELI, DANIELE; MARTINS POMPEO, MARCELO LUIZ; MOSCHINI-CARLOS, VIVIANE. Trophic State Evolution over 15 Years in a Tropical Reservoir with Low Nitrogen Concentrations and Cyanobacteria Predominance. WATER AIR AND SOIL POLLUTION, v. 227, n. 3 MAR 2016. Web of Science Citations: 8.

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