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Multi-User Equipment approved in grant 2013/24003-9: infrared gas analyser - IRGA for photosynthesis analyses

Grant number: 14/20763-1
Support type:Multi-user Equipment Program
Duration: March 01, 2015 - February 28, 2017
Field of knowledge:Agronomical Sciences - Agronomy
Principal Investigator:Lilian Amorim
Grantee:Lilian Amorim
Home Institution: Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Piracicaba , SP, Brazil
Associated research grant:13/24003-9 - Grape diseases: epidemiology, damage assessment and control, AP.TEM
As informações de acesso ao Equipamento Multiusuário são de responsabilidade do Pesquisador responsável
EMU web page: Página do Equipamento Multiusuário não informada
Tipo de equipamento:Caracterização de Materiais - Análises Químicas - Monitoramento de gases
Caracterização de Materiais - Espectroscopia - Infravermelho
Caracterização e Análises de Amostras - Equipamentos portáteis - Gasosos
Fabricante: Fabricante não informado
Modelo: Modelo não informado

Abstract

This research project was motivated by the exaggerated number of fungicides spraying by the growers of São Paulo State for the control of grape diseases. Recent estimates indicate that the control of fungal diseases has been performed with 103 and 59 fungicide spraying each season in vineyards of european (Vitis vinifera) and american grapes (Vitis labrusca), respectively, in the State of São Paulo (Costa et al ., 2012). It is hard to understand the reasoning for this huge number of fungicide spraying as the damage caused by grape diseases that occur in São Paulo were not quantitatively estimated. In addition there are no detailed information about the influence of environmental variables on the diseases development (except for downy mildew) in São Paulo. This intensive and protective disease management increases the grapes production costs and can lead to the selection of resistant strains of pathogens to fungicides, to the accumulation of fungicides in the soil, and to the presence of fungicide residues in grapes, with damages not yet estimated to the environment and the consumer. Different strategies for disease management must be performed in São Paulo to reduce the number of fungicide applications without reducing the efficiency of control. The main objective of this research project is to understand the epidemic process of mildew, anthracnose and rust in São Paulo vineyards, in order to propose management strategies to reduce the use of fungicides. In addition to the study of the most frequent diseases in São Paulo, this project will also assess the development of bacterial canker of grapevine, a disease restricted to the Brazilian Northeast, and estimate the damage caused by this disease, in order to anticipate its impact before its introduction in the State of São Paulo. It is proposed in this project: to evaluate the monocycle of grape rust, grape anthracnose and bacterial canker of grapevine under controlled conditions; to evaluate the effects of these diseases and downy mildew on photosynthesis and on the distribution of vine assimilates for five years, in order to estimate the damage caused by these disease on the grapes; to determine the sensitivity of Plasmopara viticola, Phakopsora euvitis e Elsinoë ampelina (Sphaceloma ampelinum) to fungicides and molecular characterization of the isolates; to characterize the effect of plant architecture on the environmental variables and on the spatial-temporal distribution of diseases in vineyards; to simulate the progress of each disease; to proposed forecast and warning systems for the control of these diseases. The research team has experts on plant diseases epidemiology, fruit production, histopathology, plant physiology, agrometeorology and disease forecast. (AU)