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The effect of the opponent level, competitive phase, and performance on hormonal and behavioural responses of youth basketball players: an approach based on the Biosocial model status

Grant number: 16/13325-3
Support Opportunities:Regular Research Grants
Duration: October 01, 2016 - September 30, 2018
Field of knowledge:Health Sciences - Physical Education
Principal Investigator:Alexandre Moreira
Grantee:Alexandre Moreira
Host Institution: Escola de Educação Física e Esporte (EEFE). Universidade de São Paulo (USP). São Paulo , SP, Brazil
Associated researchers:Marcelo Saldanha Aoki


The Biosocial Model of Status is a theoretical model adopted by researchers studying human competition and aggression. This model postulates an association between variations in testosterone (T) and behaviour. An additional postulation of the Model is that T concentrations during competition will vary as a function of the outcome of the competitive interaction. Additionally, it has been suggested that an increase in T concentration for both pre-and-post competitive interactions would be associated with situations which include individuals competing for status or trying to maintain high status within a given hierarchy. However, there have also been published controversial results in sports context, notably for team sport athletes. Among the possible explanations for these conflicting results would be the athletes interpretation of the match difficult level; the rivalry between competing teams; the sense or perception of contribution that a player himself attribute to the outcome of the match, or even the possible association between T and cortisol (C) interaction and behaviour responses, taking into account the premises of the "Dual Hormone Hypothesis". Therefore, it seems imperative the conduction of investigations contemplating a holistic approach, including together the hormonal responses, behaviour responses, technical-tactical performance as well as the perceived performance, taking into account the opponent level and the importance of the match, in order to advance the knowledge in this field. Then, the present study aims to examine the influence of the opponent level on pre-match anxiety and pre-match hormonal responses in youth basketball players; b) examine the influence of the competitive phase (regular season vs. playoffs) on pre-match anxiety and pre-match hormonal responses of these youth players; c) examine the association between the opponent level, pre-match anxiety, and hormonal responses with technical performance; d) to compare the hormonal reactivity (pre-post), taking into account the opponent level, competitive phase, and the association between technical performance, athletes perceived performance, as well as the performance perceived by the coach, on hormonal responses. Thirty-six basketball players (under-15, under-16, and under-17) will take part in the study. Fourteen matches for each age-category will be filmed. At least, 7 matches will be filmed during the regular season and other 7 matches during the playoffs. During the regular season, data from 2 matches for each opponent level (easy, moderate, and hard) will be retained for analysis for each age-category. Saliva samples will be collected during 1 match for each opponent level during the regular season. Other saliva collections will be conducted during playoffs, including semi-final and final matches. The technical-tactical actions will be recorded and codified using the DartFish v.8.0 system for further analysis. To examine the pre-match anxiety, the CSAI-2 will be used. The rating of perceived effort will be registered after all assessed matches. After the matches, the athletes will be required to indicate their perceived performance. The coaches will also be required to indicate their perception of each athlete performance. (AU)

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Scientific publications
(References retrieved automatically from Web of Science and SciELO through information on FAPESP grants and their corresponding numbers as mentioned in the publications by the authors)
SCHULTZ DE ARRUDA, ADEMIR FELIPE; AOKI, MARCELO SALDANHA; PALUDO, ANA CAROLINA; DRAGO, GUSTAVO; MOREIRA, ALEXANDRE. Competition stage influences perceived performance but does not affect rating of perceived exertion and salivary neuro-endocrine-immune markers in elite young basketball players. Physiology & Behavior, v. 188, p. 151-156, . (16/13325-3)
SCHULTZ DE ARRUDA, ADEMIR FELIPE; AOKI, MARCELO SALDANHA; DRAGO, GUSTAVO; MOREIRA, ALEXANDRE. Salivary testosterone concentration, anxiety, perceived performance and ratings of perceived exertion in basketball players during semi-final and final matches. Physiology & Behavior, v. 198, p. 102-107, . (16/13325-3)
ARRUDA, ADEMIR F. S.; AOKI, MARCELO S.; PALUDO, ANA CAROLINA; MOREIRA, ALEXANDRE. Salivary steroid response and competitive anxiety in elite basketball players: Effect of opponent level. Physiology & Behavior, v. 177, p. 291-296, . (16/13325-3)

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