(Abstract do artigo concluído) This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the relationship among body mass index (BMI), dental caries, sugar exposure and social factors, as well as the presence of visible biofilm in 303 three-to-five-year-old preschoolers in the city of Teresina-PI, Brazil. Dental caries was recorded according to the World Health Organization criteria (WHO) + early caries lesions (ECL). Body weight/height was determined and BMI was calculated. Data regarding the sugar exposure was recorded using the mean exposure of 72-hour recall diet frequency chart. The presence of clinically visible dental biofilm on maxillary incisors was also recorded. Behavioral and social economic status of the study subjects were assessed using an interview applied to the mother. Data were analyzed by chi-square test followed by multiple logistic regression analysis (± = 0.05, confidence interval = 95%). The results showed that 10.6% of the children were malnourished, 17.2% were underweight, 44.9% had health weight, 15.5% were at risk of overweight, and 11.9% were obese; 24.8% were caries free and 75.2% had early childhood caries (ECC). The mean dmfs score was 10.8 (± 11.2). Preschool children with ECC were 0.3 times more likely to be obese than caries free children (p = 0.0049). In the same way, those who consumed liquid sugar more than 2 times a day, were 2.7 times more likely to be obese (p = 0.0339). No association was found between overweight and caries (p=0.3640) and dental biofilm (p= 0.3190). Preschool children who slept with a bottle were 2.3 times more likely to have underweight than children who did not sleep with a bottle (p = 0.0174). Female preschool children were 0.3 times more likely to be malnourished than boys (p = 0.00797). Moreover, preschool children with presence of dental biofilm were 3.1 times more likely to be malnourished than children with absent biofilm (p = 0.0247). In conclusion, our results suggest that preschool children having early childhood caries and a high liquid sugar consumption were more likely to be obese and those who were bottle fed during the night showed a higher chance of having underweight.
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