The increasing mobility of people strengthens migration as an important element in the dynamic of the international community, which is part of a broader process of transformation of the nation state with impacts on the concept of citizenship. Since modernity, nationality is a condition for the granting of citizenship, which leads to the exclusion of a large number of people displaced from their national territory, to whom the various rights related to the status of citizen are not assured. The legal institute of regional citizenship, inaugurated by the European citizenship, although still far from having consolidated its contours, is the major innovation in this field. In South America, the Constitutive Treaty of the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) lists among its objectives the cooperation on migration, harmonization of policies in this area and the progressive recognition of the rights of nationals of a Member State resident in another Member State in order to achieve a South American citizenship. Thus, a careful analysis of relevant legislation related to this issue in each of the Member States is needed, and also the establishment of a dialogue between the results of this analysis and the possible paradigms that can shape a South American citizenship: the paradigm of the market or the one of human rights.
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