|Support type:||Scholarships in Brazil - Scientific Initiation|
|Effective date (Start):||September 01, 2012|
|Effective date (End):||August 31, 2014|
|Field of knowledge:||Health Sciences - Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy|
|Principal Investigator:||Patricia Monteiro Seraphim|
|Grantee:||Lais Regina Rossi|
|Home Institution:||Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia (FCT). Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP). Campus de Presidente Prudente. Presidente Prudente , SP, Brazil|
Cigarette smoking during pregnancy and lactation causes harm as cigarettes contain chemicals toxic to the fetus and newborn as nicotine and carbon monoxide. The main consequences in the postpartum period are intrauterine growth retardation and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and lactation offspring with low body weight due to the concentration of nicotine contained in breast milk that interferes with the accumulation of lipids during pregnancy. Cigarette smoking alters cellular metabolism in various aspects and evidence suggests that this may prompt a picture of insulin resistance, and long-term type 2 diabetes. Among the most important metabolic changes associated with insulin resistance is the change in the amount of glucose transporter GLUT4 in the plasma membrane of muscle and adipose tissue, and inflammatory pathway, which has a role in insulin resistance, regulating the negative insulin signaling pathway. But it is not clear which metabolic changes are transfer to offspring of a mother smoker. In addition, physical activity appears as one of factors that might affect the risk of individuals develop insulin resistance and / or diabetes, since they can increase protein expression and mRNA glucose transporter GLUT4 glucose transport stimulating by a pathway independent of the signaling pathway of insulin. Into this context, this study aims to evaluate the effect of smoking and physical activity on insulin sensitivity in muscle of rats from breeders smokers, by quantifying protein and mRNA of glucose transporter GLUT4 and local inflammation by TNF-± and IL-10 expression analysis in gastrocnemius. To conduct the study offspring of female rats subjected to a program of passive smoking or not will be used, and the offspring will be divided into eight groups: G1CS (sedentary control); G1CN control (swimming); G1FS (exposed to cigarette smoke and sedentary) ; G1FN (exposed to cigarette smoke and swimming); G2CS (sedentary control); G2CN (control and swimming); G2FS (exposed to cigarette smoke and sedentary); G2FN (exposed to cigarette smoke and swimming). The protocol will consist of passive smoking exposure of matrices and groups of young G1FS, G1FN, G2FS G2FN to the cigarette smoke for 30 minutes, 2x day, five days a week with a 350ppm CO exposure, totaling 60 days for the group of matrices and four weeks for the group of pups. The animals in groups G1CN, G1FN, G2CN G2FN will be submitted to a protocol of physical activity in the water 5x per week for 6 weeks. To assess the GLUT4, TNF-alpha and IL-10 genes expression gastrocnemius muscle will be removed under anesthesia and RT-PCR will be performed. Statistical analysis will be performed by comparison of means using two-way ANOVA, parametric, and post-test when appropriate (Tukey or Student-Newman-Keuls). Differences among groups will be considered significant when the value of P is less than 0.05.