The shifiting cultivation systems, one of the oldest forms of agriculture, is still practiced by the quilombola communities from Vale do Ribeira-SP Brazil. However, the current restrictions of brazilian environmental legislation and the new economic needs, which do not exist in these communities, are some of the main reasons for the decline of this practice. The shifiting cultivation systems production for domestic consumption has been replaced by commercial farming, supported by government incentives such as financial credits and technical expertise. This project intend to evaluate the productivity of different cropping systems and between areas subjected to different times of fallow, discuss the reasons and the impacts of this transition, its sustainability, as well the economic impacts to these communities. Will be evaluated 10 areas using the shifiting cultivation for rice, maize, bean and cassava production, and 05 areas of comercial cultivation of peach palm. The parameters for assessing productivity are: the hours of work per individual asset, the production per hectare, the supplies and equipment used and the household income. Data analysis will be done by descriptive statistics and the Students t-test.
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