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Influence of microenvironment on proliferation and migration of neural stem cells

Grant number: 12/24429-3
Support type:Scholarships in Brazil - Scientific Initiation
Effective date (Start): April 01, 2013
Effective date (End): July 31, 2013
Field of knowledge:Biological Sciences - Morphology
Principal Investigator:Marimélia Aparecida Porcionatto
Grantee:Agnes Araujo Sardinha Pinto
Home Institution: Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM). Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP). Campus São Paulo. São Paulo , SP, Brazil

Abstract

The neural stem cells are present during brain development and remain in mammalian adult nervous system. In the adult brain, neural stem cells are restricted to regions that allow regulation and maintenance of their characters of self-renewal and differentiation potential. Extracellular matrix components, growth factors, neurotrophic factors and chemokine compose the neurogenic microenvironment and are involved in maintenance of neural progenitors. Several intrinsic and extrinsic factors regulate proliferation and migration of neural stem cells and as a result it yields a great complexity of molecular interactions implicated in the regulation of neurogenesis. Therefore, an important aspect of adult brain neurogenesis is the relation between proliferation and migration of neural stem cells and cells derived from them, such as neuroblasts that become neurons when they reach their final destination. The control of transition from a proliferative state to a migratory state is crucial for correct location of newborn neurons and errors in this process can lead to fail in response to a lesion for example. This project has two objectives: the first one aims to study proliferation of neural stem cells from subventricular zone in vitro when overlaid in different locations of brain slices to observe whether the location of cells affects proliferation. The second objective is to verify whether a traumatic lesion to the cortex modifies proliferation of neural stem cells from the subventricular zone. The understanding of the molecular mechanisms that control proliferation of neural stem cells and migration of neuroblasts in response to chemeoattractive factors in physiologic or pathological conditions is necessary to understand the control mechanisms of adult neurogenesis. (AU)