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Temperature effect on production components and technological quality in wheat varieties (Triticum aestivum)

Grant number: 14/21127-1
Support type:Scholarships in Brazil - Scientific Initiation
Effective date (Start): January 01, 2015
Effective date (End): August 31, 2015
Field of knowledge:Agronomical Sciences - Agronomy - Crop Science
Principal Investigator:Sandra Helena Unêda-Trevisoli
Grantee:Douglas Luiz Delfino de Melo
Home Institution: Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias (FCAV). Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP). Campus de Jaboticabal. Jaboticabal , SP, Brazil

Abstract

Wheat has its origin dated between 10-15 thousand years BC and was one of the first plants to be cultivated and is linked to the development of modern civilization having importance until nowadays in human food and animal feed. Currently it is the second cultivated cereal in the world with an area of approximately 220 million hectars. The highest expression wheat growing area are temperate. In 2014 Brazilian crop, is estimated a demand of 12.2 million tonnes that the estimated 7.67 million tons production can not meet. In 2012/2013 harvest, Brazil used about 2.2 billion dollars to import 7.01 million tons. The area with the highest expression is the country's southern region whereas the largest consuming region is the southeast region. For Brazil to get their much desired self-sufficiency in wheat is necessary to expand the area under cultivation to non-traditional areas until then. The limiting factor for cultivation in non-traditional areas is the temperature which can cause damage from germination to the reproductive phase hindering the formation of spikes, fertility of the pollen grain, grain filling and the industrial quality of these grains. The great genetic variability in wheat and the existence of mechanisms of heat tolerance regulated by its genetic constitution make possible the application of breeding techniques with emphasis on high temperatures tolerance. There is a large expanse of crops in regions with high temperatures. Due to this expansion, the growing domestic demand and forecasts of temperature increase becomes necessary an adaptive genotype study enabling a safe recommendation of adapted cultivars to those conditions. This is the first work with tropical wheat at UNESP Jaboticabal. The objectives of this proposal are: phenotype a collection of 96 wheat genotypes in two environments with simulated temperature (favorable and unfavorable environment); evaluate the effects of temperature on the fertility of spikes of wheat and other production components; point among the tested genotypes, those with better production by high temperatures and evaluate the effects of temperature on the protein content of wheat grains harvested in both environments. The experiment will be conducted in a greenhouse at UNESP Jaboticabal simulating two temperature conditions: favorable (25/15 ° C) and unfavorable (35/25 ° C). Every plot will be seeded into a 4 liter vessel. The design will be randomized block with two replications in each condition totaling 192 vessels / condition. 10 seeds will be planted per vessel leaving only the 4 most vigorous plants in each vessel. Data will be obtained in the evaluation of four plants referring to the following characters: germination date, position the flag leaf, flag leaf size, date of physiological maturity of the grain, plant height, stem diameter, number of spikes per vessel spike size, average spike weight, number of fertile spikelets per spike, number of grains / spike, number of viable gains / spike , grain weight / spike, weight of viable / spike, weight of a thousand grains, average grain size, total biomass, harvest index and protein content in grain. Statistical analyzes will be performed by software Genes and R. platform. Data will be submitted to descriptive analysis and analysis of variance. The quantification of occurred heat effects in the favorable environment in relation to unfavorable will be obtained by the reduction percentage. To determine the correlation between the variables analyzed, the data will be submitted to analysis of correlation (R2). Finally Principal Component Analysis will be performed in order to determine the set of variables that best explain the response to the heat of the tested genotypes. (AU)

Scientific publications
(References retrieved automatically from Web of Science and SciELO through information on FAPESP grants and their corresponding numbers as mentioned in the publications by the authors)
DE MELO, D. L. D.; CORREA, A. A. P.; MORESCO, E. R.; DA SILVA, F. M.; VAL, B. H. P.; DI MAURO, A. O.; UNEDA-TREVISOLI, S. H. Heat stress: Impacts on fertility, productivity, and protein content of wheat cultivars. Genetics and Molecular Research, v. 16, n. 4 DEC 7 2017. Web of Science Citations: 0.

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