The phagocytosis of apoptotic cell is a dynamic process and has a fundamental role in tissue homeostasis, after a sterile inflammation or an infectious process. Macrophages are the main phagocyte cells involved in clearance of apoptotic cell and in this way they prevent the development of necrosis process, which results in tissue injury. Macrophages are indispensable in the clearance of apoptotic cells, but they also have a fundamental role in host defense against pathogens. It is known that there are at least two distinct macrophage populations classified as M1 and M2 that express different cytokines and receptors. The microenvironment, such as cytokines and stimuli, play an important role in M1/M2-polarization.Recently, our research group observed that the phagocytosis of infected apoptotic cells by dendritic cells induces a major production of prostaglandin E2 when compared with the phagocytosis of sterile apoptotic cell. In addition of prostaglandin E2, the phagocytosis of infected apoptotic cells or sterile apoptotic cells can lead to synthesis of different pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines, respectively. However, until the moment remain unknown about the effect of phagocytosis of different sources of apoptotic cells in M1/M2-polarization.We sought to determine what is the effect of phagocytosis of infected or non-infected apoptotic cells in M1/M2 polarization and the influence of the cytokines in this polarization.
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