Individuals receiving kidney transplantation have a significant increase in the risk of developing a wide variety of cancers. Among these, the non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is by far the one that most commonly affects this population. It is largely recognized that the substantial raise in cancer incidence rates among kidney transplant recipients (KTR) cannot be fully explained solely by the immunosuppressive effects related to the anti-rejection therapy used after allograft transplantation. Particularly, sleep deprivation can impair the immune system physiology and reduce the human body natural ability to counteract oxidative stress, which is essential in the carcinogenesis process related to oxygen reactive species. Furthermore, sleep disorders are responsible for disturbing physical, psychological and cognitive domains of KTR and it is associated with the loss of allograft function and higher mortality rates. Thereby, this is the first study designed to evaluate the association between sleep and skin cancer in renal transplant recipients. In order to do so, 90 individuals will be recruited and arranged into 3 groups: KTR without NMSC (n=30), KTR with NMSC (n=30) and healthy controls (n=30), according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria stated for each group. For all patients that agree with the study terms and conditions, they will fill in a set of questionnaires assessing quality of life, quality of sleep and socioeconomic status, and then they will undergo a detailed physical examination. The current study intends to contribute with new evidences about the role of sleep in the development of NMSC following transplantation in order to improve and propose new post-transplant care guidelines including sleep education for healthcare professionals and patients. Ultimately, we aim to prevent skin cancer and improve the overall quality of life as well as patients' survival.
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