The major acoustic signal emitted by males of anuran species (advertisement call) conveys two major messages: sexual receptivity for conspecific females, and advertisement of a male's position, helping to maintain spacing between calling individuals, as well as warding off and intimidating rival conspecific males. Vocalizations (Bioacoustics) represent a database with potential applicability in the detection of macroevolutionary patterns, inasmuch as it is expected that they possess an expressive phylogenetic component, which might be used directly as characters in phylogenetic analyses, or as a posteriori indicators of robustness of phylogenetic hypotheses. Evolutionary trends of characters of a given taxon sampling might be identified through Phylogenetic Comparative Methods (PCMs). The characters might include both habitat data and phenotypic features. The Neotropical genus Adenomera currently consists of 18 recognized species distributed throughout South America east of the Andes; all species have at least one call description available. Several studies have revised and discussed the definition and phylogenetic position of Adenomera, as well as the interrelationships of its comprising taxa. Our proposal is to conduct an in-depth acoustic analysis of the advertisement calls of the Neotropical frog genus Adenomera, seeking for phylogenetic signal, and associations or correlations with the pre-existing differences observed in its call characters within a comparative framework (Phylogenetic Comparative Methods) based on the available phylogenetic hypothesis for this frog group. We will use this approach as in investigation of the patterns of evolution of acoustic signals in this taxonomic group. In addition to investigating a general pattern of call evolution, we address one specific question: do different call characters evolve at similar rates, or are characters more closely allied with morphology (spectral traits) more conservative than those more closely allied with behavior (e.g. variation in emission rates due to the sexual excitement of the individual) and physiology (e.g. temperature effects on temporal traits)?
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