Different studies has shown the relationship between attention and modulation of electroencephalographic (EEG) power spectra, mainly in Beta (including Sensory-Motor Rhythm, SMR) and Theta power bands, as well as Beta/Theta Ratio. Brain activity, specifically its power band frequencies, can be controlled through neurofeedback training. It can be done aiming to enhance one's attentional resources, focusing in self-regulation of Beta and Theta activities (and consequently the Beta/Theta ratio) detected in frontoparietal eletrodes. In addition to neurofeedback, Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is another method used to interfere with brain activity in a cheap and safe way. Various studies showed that tDCS applied over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) led to enhanced attentional performance. Despite studies showing neurofeedback and tDCS efficacy in enhancing attentional performance in healthy subjects, it is not clear how tDCS interfere with EEG power bands related to attentional processes. This study aims to investigate neurofeedback and tDCS (over DLPFC) over Beta, Theta and Beta/Theta ratio during an attentional task. 80 healthy participants, between 18 and 35 years old, will be randomly distributed among two neurofeedback training groups (Group 1 - training SMR and Beta/Theta enhancement, as well as Theta decrease; group 2 - placebo neurofeedback) and two tDCS groups (Active and Sham tDCS). After that, all participants will be evaluated in the Attentional Network Test while their brain activity are recorded with EEG. Regarding the active neurofeedback, we believe that compared to placebo neurofeedback it will led to modulation of Beta, Theta and Beta/Theta frequency bands and enhanced performance in the attentional task. Regarding the tDCS, we believe that, compared to Sham, active DLPFC stimulation will led to diminished Theta activity (consequently resulting in increased Beta/Theta ratio), enhancing performance in the attention task. However, it is not possible to hypothesize if and how both techniques will differ, due to a lack of previous studies pointing any effect in this way. (AU)
News published in Agência FAPESP Newsletter about the scholarship:
GONCALVES, OSCAR F.;
AMARO, JR., EDSON;
BOGGIO, PAULO S.
Mind wandering and the attention network system.
Web of Science Citations: 4.
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