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Enhanced sensitive and selective sensors made with p-NiO nanowire/n-ZnO Nanowire heterostructures

Grant number: 14/23546-1
Support type:Scholarships in Brazil - Post-Doctorate
Effective date (Start): January 01, 2016
Effective date (End): October 31, 2021
Field of knowledge:Physical Sciences and Mathematics - Physics - Condensed Matter Physics
Principal researcher:Osvaldo Novais de Oliveira Junior
Grantee:Niravkumar Jitendrabhai Joshi
Home Institution: Instituto de Física de São Carlos (IFSC). Universidade de São Paulo (USP). São Carlos , SP, Brazil
Associated research grant:18/22214-6 - Toward a convergence of technologies: from sensing and biosensing to information visualization and machine learning for data analysis in clinical diagnosis, AP.TEM
Associated scholarship(s):16/23474-6 - Nanomaterial-based heterostructures: synthesis and their gas sensing properties, BE.EP.PD


A great deal of research has been focused on the synthesis of metal oxide-based nanomaterials because of their superior and enhanced functional properties for realizing functional nanodevices. Among different nanostructures, nanowires (NWs) are considered as next-generation gas sensors. They offer various advantages, including high surface area-to-volume ratio, effective pathway for electron transfer (length of NWs), dimensions comparable to the extension of the surface charge region, enhanced and tunable surface reactivity implying possible room-temperature operation, faster response and recovery time. Further advantages include relatively simple preparation methods allowing large-scale production, convenient to use, ease of fabrication and manipulation, and low power consumption. ZnO NWs, in particular, are easily synthesized using physical/chemical processes, and display wide band gap, high thermal stability, and easy control over morphology. They are often modified with sensitizers and have been used in sensors with improved response kinetics towards gases like CO, C2H5OH, and H2S. Metal oxide based sensors have low cost, low power consumption, and high compatibility with microelectronic processing. However, they suffer from the drawback of poor selectivity, long response and recovery times, less stability and less sensor response values. To overcome these drawbacks the host matrix is often modified with metal sensitizers such as Pd, Pt, Ag, Au, Fe and Cu, or with other metal oxides, viz. NiO, CuO, SnO2, to achieve selective sensors towards desired gases with enhanced response characteristics. This project will focus on establishing nano p-n junctions between p-type NiO and n-type ZnO to reach enhanced, selective response towards target gases such as H2S, NH3, C2H5OH and CO. To accomplish this main objective, we shall: i) Develop low cost, highly selective and room temperature operable and portable nanostructured metal oxide gas sensors. ii) Prepare metal oxide nanowires such as ZnO, NiO, In2O3 and WO3 by different wet chemical techniques, including sol-gel, hydrothermal and Pechini routes and thin film deposition by thermal evaporation, sputtering, electro spinning, chemical vapor deposition and spray pyrolysis. iii) study interfaces of NiO/ZnO random nanowires; iv) study sensor design and fabrication for commercialization. The gas sensors will be made with metal oxides and conducting polymers. Different characterization techniques will be used to investigate materials properties to optimize the sensors, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy. p-n junctions with metal oxides will be designed by modifying the sensor surface with a thin layer of NiO. The formation of p-n junctions causes depletion of NWs wherein modification results in the formation of p-n junctions/potential barriers distributed over the surface of the sensor films. The unique interaction leads to the collapse of the potential barrier between the p-type NiO and n-type ZnO thereby causing a drastic change in the sensor resistance. We may also investigate YMn2O5 oxide as a sensing material.

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Scientific publications (12)
(References retrieved automatically from Web of Science and SciELO through information on FAPESP grants and their corresponding numbers as mentioned in the publications by the authors)
MALIK, RITU; JOSHI, NIRAV; TOMER, VIJAY K. Advances in the designs and mechanisms of MoO3 nanostructures for gas sensors: a holistic review. MATERIALS ADVANCES, v. 2, n. 13 JUN 2021. Web of Science Citations: 0.
GONCALVES, ROSANA A.; TOLEDO, ROSIMARA P.; JOSHI, NIRAV; BERENGUE, OLIVIA M. Green Synthesis and Applications of ZnO and TiO2 Nanostructures. Molecules, v. 26, n. 8 APR 2021. Web of Science Citations: 2.
MATERON, ELSA MARIA; WONG, ADEMAR; GOMES, LEONARDO MARIANO; IBANEZ-REDIN, GISELA; JOSHI, NIRAV; OLIVEIRA JR, OSVALDO N.; FARIA, RONALDO C. Combining 3D printing and screen-printing in miniaturized, disposable sensors with carbon paste electrodes. JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY C, v. 9, n. 17 APR 2021. Web of Science Citations: 0.
WU, YICHUAN; JOSHI, NIRAV; ZHAO, SHILONG; LONG, HU; ZHOU, LIUJIANG; MA, GE; PENG, BEI; OLIVEIRA JR, OSVALDO N.; ZETTL, ALEX; LIN, LIWEI. NO2 gas sensors based on CVD tungsten diselenide monolayer. Applied Surface Science, v. 529, NOV 1 2020. Web of Science Citations: 0.
VASUDEVAN, MUGASHINI; TAI, MELVIN J. Y.; PERUMAL, VEERADASAN; GOPINATH, SUBASH C. B.; MURTHE, SATISVAR SUNDERA; OVINIS, MARK; MOHAMED, NORANI MUTI; JOSHI, NIRAV. Highly sensitive and selective acute myocardial infarction detection using aptamer-tethered MoS2 nanoflower and screen-printed electrodes. Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry, NOV 2020. Web of Science Citations: 0.
SUBRAMANI, INDRA GANDI; PERUMAL, VEERADASAN; GOPINATH, SUBASH C. B.; MOHAMED, NORANI MUTI; JOSHI, NIRAV; OVINIS, MARK; LI SZE, LIM. 3D nanoporous hybrid nanoflower for enhanced non-faradaic redox-free electrochemical impedimetric biodetermination. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, v. 116, p. 26-35, NOV 2020. Web of Science Citations: 0.
WU, YICHUAN; HUANG, QIYANG; NIE, JING; LIANG, JIAMING; JOSHI, NIRAV; HAYASAKA, TAKESHI; ZHAO, SHILONG; ZHANG, MIN; WANG, XIAOHAO; LIN, LIWEI. All-Carbon Based Flexible Humidity Sensor. Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, v. 19, n. 8, p. 5310-5316, AUG 2019. Web of Science Citations: 0.
JOSHI, NIRAV; DA SILVA, LUIS F.; SHIMIZU, FLAVIO M.; MASTELARO, VALMOR R.; M'PEKO, JEAN-CLAUDE; LIN, LIWEI; OLIVEIRA, JR., OSVALDO N. UV-assisted chemiresistors made with gold-modified ZnO nanorods to detect ozone gas at room temperature. Microchimica Acta, v. 186, n. 7 JUL 2019. Web of Science Citations: 2.
NIE, JING; WU, YICHUAN; HUANG, QIYANG; JOSHI, NIRAV; LI, NING; MENG, XIAOFENG; ZHENG, SUNXIANG; ZHANG, MIN; MI, BAOXIA; LIN, LIWEI. Dew Point Measurement Using a Carbon-Based Capacitive Sensor with Active Temperature Control. ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES, v. 11, n. 1, p. 1699-1705, JAN 9 2019. Web of Science Citations: 4.
JOSHI, NIRAV; HAYASAKA, TAKESHI; LIU, YUMENG; LIU, HUILIANG; OLIVEIRA, JR., OSVALDO N.; LIN, LIWEI. A review on chemiresistive room temperature gas sensors based on metal oxide nanostructures, graphene and 2D transition metal dichalcogenides. Microchimica Acta, v. 185, n. 4 APR 2018. Web of Science Citations: 97.
JOSHI, NIRAV; DA SILVA, LUIS F.; JADHAV, HARSHARAJ S.; SHIMIZU, FLAVIO M.; SUMAN, PEDRO H.; M'PEKO, JEAN-CLAUDE; ORLANDI, MARCELO ORNAGHI; SEO, JEONG GIL; MASTELARO, VALMOR R.; OLIVEIRA, JR., OSVALDO N. Yolk-shelled ZnCo2O4 microspheres: Surface properties and gas sensing application. SENSORS AND ACTUATORS B-CHEMICAL, v. 257, p. 906-915, MAR 2018. Web of Science Citations: 60.
JOSHI, NIRAV; DA SILVA, LUIS F.; JADHAV, HARSHARAJ; M'PEKO, JEAN-CLAUDE; MILLAN TORRES, BRUNO BASSI; AGUIR, KHALIFA; MASTELARO, VALMOR R.; OLIVEIRA, JR., OSVALDO N. One-step approach for preparing ozone gas sensors based on hierarchical NiCo2O4 structures. RSC ADVANCES, v. 6, n. 95, p. 92655-92662, 2016. Web of Science Citations: 32.

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