The control of the respiratory system is accomplished by neurons located in the medulla and pons. The bulb has regions involved in respiratory control located in the ventral respiratory column and dorsal respiratory column. The retrotrapezóide nucleus (RTN) is a region located in the ventral respiratory column bulb. The region contains the RTN chemoreceptor neurons that express the transcription factor PHOX2B and respond to hypercapnia and hypoxia; For this reason, this region is considered a strong candidate to be a central chemoreceptors (Mulkey et al, 2004; Dubreuil et al, 2008; Guyenet et al, 2009). Experiments described in the literature have shown the importance of the RTN in inspiration (Dobbins and Feldman, 1994; Takakura et al, 2006; Guyenet et al, 2008) and also in active expiration (E2 phase) (Janczewski and Feldman, 2006a, 2006b; Abdala et al, 2009; Pagliardini et al, 2011; Moraes et al, 2014). However, data in the literature suggest that there is a RTN synaptic inhibition for withdrawing the active expiration and that this inhibition is removed during a situation requiring the activation of this E2 phase of breathing, for example (Pagliardini et al, 2011) during exposure to a situation of hypercapnia, hypoxia, or physical activity. However, until now, no one knows the source of this inhibition for the RTN neurons that control active expiration. Therefore, the main objective of this project is to investigate the anatomical and functional form, the location of the source of inhibition for the RTN and the phenotype of neurons involved in this projection.
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