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Molecular characterization and epidemiological profile of infection by influenza a in 2015 and 2016 epidemic in São Paulo

Grant number: 16/16187-0
Support type:Scholarships in Brazil - Scientific Initiation
Effective date (Start): October 01, 2016
Effective date (End): September 30, 2017
Field of knowledge:Biological Sciences - Microbiology
Principal Investigator:Edison Luiz Durigon
Grantee:Alexandre Amatruda Marum
Home Institution: Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas (ICB). Universidade de São Paulo (USP). São Paulo , SP, Brazil

Abstract

Influenza A virus is responsible for important clinical presentations of acute respiratory infection (ARI). These patients may develop a controlled reaction, which lasts for about a week, with classic symptoms as cough, nasal congestion, dyspnea, coryza, among others, or may evolve into clinical patterns of pneumonia, bronchitis or even Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS).Beyond its pathogenicity, the influenza virus is highly known for its ease of dissemination and its ability to promote antigenic changes, which promotes different molecular subtypes These characteristics corroborate the installation of major pandemics, as recorded in Spain, in 1916, in Asia, in 1957, and in Hong Kong, in 1968, for example.Therefore, a viral replication outbreak of Influenza A installed in the period between 2015 and early 2016, resulted in a serious epidemic of the virus in Brazil. 115 deaths were recorded due to influenza, in the first quarter of 2016, a much larger number than the 36 deaths confirmed in the full year of 2015. In addition, the State of São Paulo is the main focus of the epidemic, recording 80 deaths in the year.As such, this study uses techniques of molecular subtyping, such as Real Time PCR and Conventional PCR, in samples of patients who spontaneously demanded care at the University Hospital of the University of São Paulo (HU-USP) with ARI symptoms to get the molecular characterization and the epidemiological profile of the Influenza A epidemic. These data are of fundamental importance in the field of Public Health, to provide a better understanding of viral mechanisms in question, which results in better ways to prevent and to confront the epidemic.Beyond its pathogenicity, the influenza virus is highly known for their ease of dissemination and its ability to promote antigenic changes, which promotes different molecular subtypes These characteristics corroborate the installation of major pandemics, as recorded in Spain, in 1916, in Asia, in 1957, and in Hong Kong, in 1968, for example.Therefore, a viral replication outbreak of Influenza A installed in the period between 2015 and early 2016, resulting in a serious epidemic of the virus in Brazil. 115 deaths were recorded by influenza, in the first quarter of 2016, a much larger number than the 36 deaths confirmed in the full year of 2015. In addition, the State of São Paulo is the main focus of the epidemic, recording 80 deaths in the year.As such, this study uses techniques of molecular subtyping, such as Real Time PCR and Conventional PCR, in samples collected at the University Hospital of the University of São Paulo (HU-USP) of free demand patients with ARI symptoms to get the molecular characterization and the epidemiological profile of the Influenza A epidemic. These data are of fundamental importance in the field of Public Health, for a better understanding of viral mechanisms in question, which results in better ways to prevent and to confront the epidemic.