Functional recovery after complete peripheral nerve transection is poor and incomplete, occurring axonal degeneration, wich is characterized by myelin fragmentation and separation. Although the peripheral nervous system presents an inherent capacity for regeneration, severe injuries do not allow nerve stumps reconnection. For proper nerve regeneration is essential to maintain a permissive microenvironment. In this context, cell constituents, geometrical organization of components and neurotrophic factors has an essential role for peripheral nerve regeneration. The tubulation techniques allow growth of nerve fibers. Although the introduction of new microsurgical techniques remains, this process is rarely satisfactory for the neuroregeneration and nerve functional recovery. Cell therapy, especially with multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), has assumed the focus by neurogenerative, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. In addition to the human species, canine species also has a high incidence of traumatic lesions of peripheral nerves and may be used as a natural experimental model. This study aims to compare the effects of canine and murine adipose-derived MSC seeded in polycaprolactone tube (PCL) wall, in the regeneration of the experimental model of the sciatic nerve neurotmesis. Our hypothesis is to determinate if the combined use of a PCL tube and MSC in the transected nerves stimulates neuregeneration and functional recovery, improving functional, electrophysiological, morphological aspects and expression of cytokines and neurotrophic factors.
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