Clinical evaluation of bovines exposed to high concentration of heavy metals and its relationship with intestinal, ruminal and respiratory microbiota change and the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria
Heavy metals are considered the most dangerous polutents to the environment, and to the human being. They usually are the subject of studies about the environmental impacts. Mineral exploration is responsible for the production of high volumes of toxic residues. Mariana city was severely affected by the deposition of residues resulting from the mineral exploration after the rupture of the dam of Fundão. High concentrations of heavy metals can, through several mechanisms, lead to antibiotic resistance, modification of the ruminal, intestinal and possibly respiratory microbiota, impacting animal health and, consequently, the economy of Mariana. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical performance of cattle exposed to high concentrations of heavy metals and to evaluate the impact on bacterial resistance to antimicrobials as well as study possible changes in the respiratory, intestinal and ruminal microbiota of cattle raised in the Rio Doce, Minas Gerais. 30 exposed animals and 30 animals not exposed to high concentration of heavy metals raised in the region and in regions near Mariana, Minas Gerais, will be physically evaluated. Samples of hepatic tissue, whole blood (to obtain serum), fecal swab and deep nasal swab, rumen fluid and milk will be collected. Renal and hepatic profile as well as the concentration of heavy metals in the serum will be determined; The cell conformation as well as the concentration of the metals in the hepatic tissue; intestinal, ruminal and respiratory microbiomes and, finally, the presence of bacterial resistance to antimicrobials in the samples of milk and feces will be performed.
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