The commensal microbiota of the oral-gastrointestinal tract comprises several species of microorganisms, mainly bacteria, that live in symbiosis with the human being and reside mainly in the distal intestine The most important microbiota's contributions for the host include carbohydrates digestion and fermentation, vitamin production, mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues development, immune responses polarization and prevent pathogens colonization. However, when this mutualistic relationship between host and microbiota is interrupted, the intestinal microbiota may cause or contribute to the development of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study is to characterize the intestinal microbiota isolated from faeces from MS patients and correlate this data with B and K vitamins' synthesis. Patients and controls will sign the informed consent and answer a questionnaire about lifestyle and diet habits. Fecal samples are collected by own individuals or families in universal collectors. Clinical data such as disease form, EDSS, presence/absence of active lesions and treatment will be recorded. Bacterial DNA is extracted by using commercial kit and the microbiota characterization will be performed by V3/V4 16S sequencing. Peripheral blood samples will be collected for the determination of B and K vitamins in the serum of patients and controls. The results of the intestinal microbiota of patients and controls will be analyzed by using Mann-Whitney test and correlations of microbiota results with clinical and vitamins concentrations datas will be assessed by Spearmans' test. We expect to find differences in the composition of the intestinal microbiota of patients in relation to healthy subjects and possible changes in the concentrations of vitamins synthesized by these commensal microorganisms. Further studies on dysbiosis and consequent vitamin deficiency in autoimmune diseases are necessary, and possibly in the future, immunomodulatory probiotics may assist in the adjuvant treatment of immune-mediated diseases.
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