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Immunological and virological profiles in HIV-infected individuals at the first care

Grant number: 17/10738-8
Support type:Scholarships in Brazil - Scientific Initiation
Effective date (Start): November 01, 2017
Effective date (End): October 31, 2018
Field of knowledge:Health Sciences - Medicine
Principal Investigator:Lenice Do Rosário de Souza
Grantee:Amanda Moraes Tamburrino
Home Institution: Faculdade de Medicina (FMB). Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP). Campus de Botucatu. Botucatu , SP, Brazil

Abstract

HIV infection presents a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, which may be better characterized by dividing the disease into three periods: acute phase of infection or acute retroviral syndrome, which comprises the period of the first weeks after infection in which the individual can presenting nonspecific clinical manifestations; clinical latency phase, characterized by the absence of signs and symptoms; and aids, the most advanced stage of the disease. With the persistence of viral replication, there is a progressive depletion of CD4 + T cells, which hinders the development of competent immunological responses. Thus, when the CD4 + T-cell count falls below 350 cells/mm³, the appearance of severe opportunistic infections and some neoplasias becomes more frequent. In this sense, the follow-up of HIV-infected patients includes the evaluation of their cellular immunocompetence, which is verified by the CD4 + T cell count in the peripheral blood and the quantification of the HIV viral load. Low counts of these cells and high viral loads may reflect the prognosis of disease progression, due to the association of the immunological deficit with the clinical deterioration of the patient. Currently, the life expectancy of people living with HIV/aids in treatment in developed countries, such as Canada and the USA, is already close to the life expectancy of the general population, and it is possible for these patients reach 70 years of age. However, factors such as living conditions, stage of the disease in which HIV infection was diagnosed, adherence and continuity of treatment interfere with the survival rate, which can be evidenced by the lower estimated life expectancy for non-white individuals, patients with history of injecting drug use or those whose CD4 + T lymphocyte count is below 350 cells/mm³.Considering that the Serviço de Ambulatórios Especializados de Infectologia "Domingos Alves Meira" (SAEI-DAM) is a regional reference for the follow-up of patients with HIV, HTLV and chronic hepatitis B and C virus carriers in the Botucatu microregion (DRS VI), it is important to know the profile of the attended patients, as regards the moment of diagnosis, whether it has been performed early or late. (AU)