Hepatitis C is an infectious disease that affects the liver that can progress to cirrhosis, hepatocarcinoma and death. The causative agent is the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), a positive single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Flaviviridae family. Due to its high mutation rate, associated with the large daily production of viruses and the lack of proofreading activityof the NS5B viral polymerase, HCV is divided into 7 different genotypes. In 2012, the first direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) Boceprevir and Telaprevir (inhibitors of the NS3/NS4A protein complex) were launched in Brazil and, in 2015, was approved the second generation of the DAAs, composed of Sofosbuvir, Daclatasvir and Simeprevir, inhibitors of, respectively, the NS5B, NS5A and NS3/NS4A proteins. Direct-acting antiviral treatments showed a better sustained virological response (SVR) and fewer side effects when compared to previous treatments based on Pegylated Interferon and Ribavirin. Nevertheless, the high genetic variability of HCV allows the appearance of point mutations on the viral genome, and in some cases these mutations can be related to an acquisition of antiviral resistance and evasion of treatment. Thus, this study aims to analyse, in patients infected by HCV genotype 1b that will be submitted to treatment with Sofosbuvir, the prevalence of mutations associated with resistance on NS5B polymerase.
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