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Dynamics of organic matter and soil quality in agricultural production systems

Grant number: 18/07625-0
Support type:Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate
Effective date (Start): July 01, 2018
Effective date (End): October 31, 2020
Field of knowledge:Agronomical Sciences - Agronomy
Principal Investigator:Marcelo Andreotti
Grantee:Deyvison de Asevedo Soares
Home Institution: Faculdade de Engenharia (FEIS). Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP). Campus de Ilha Solteira. Ilha Solteira , SP, Brazil

Abstract

The preservation of adequate organic matter of the soil (SOM) is fundamental for the maintenance of its physical, chemical and biological quality, since it is linked to all the processes involving these three links. MOS contains a large part of the carbon and nutrient stock of the soil, so studies on its sensitivity to changes in land use are of paramount importance for the monitoring of its quality, especially in sandy soils that have a weak structure and deserve special attention in order to maintain a standard of sustainability in the continuity of the water cycle, sustainability of microbial life and agricultural production. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the physical, chemical and microbial attributes of the soil under the no-tillage, conventional and crop-livestock integration systems, in addition to establishing relationships between these attributes and crop productivity in succession, besides evaluating the metabolism of soybean plants grown on the residual of each system, at the end of a two-year season. The experiment started in 2016 and has been conducted in the agricultural years from 2017/18 to 2019, in the municipality of Caiuá-SP. The experimental design will be of randomized blocks with 7 treatments and four replications, being the following treatments: 1 - soybean - maize + U. ruziziensis; 2 - soybean - maize + Piatã grass; 3 - soybean - maize + Paiaguás grass; 4 - soya - Piatã (grazing 2 years) - soybean; 5 - soybean - Paiaguás (grazing 2 years) - soybean; 6 - soybean - corn (no-tillage); 7 - soybean - corn (conventional preparation). The yield of shoot dry matter and corn grain, dry matter of the aerial part of the forage and grain yields of the soybean crop grown in succession in the systems will be determined. Before and after each crop season, in the whole experimental area, undisturbed soil samples are collected for physical analysis, as well as deformed samples for the soil fertility survey, physical and chemical fractionation of the organic matter and evaluation of the soil. Degree of humification at the end of each agricultural year. During the soy cycle the soil temperature and humidity will be measured. At the beginning and at the end of each autumn/winter crop samples of the biomass of each forage will be collected, placed in nylon bags and deposited in direct contact with the soil to evaluate the decomposition of the straws of each species. At the end of two years, when the perennial pasture season will be closed, the total experimental area will be cultivated with soybean and then the metabolism of these plants (IRGA) and the enzymatic activity of the soil will be evaluated. The data will be submitted to statistical analysis with the aid of the R program and the means compared by the Tukey test. (AU)