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Teratogenic agents and the risk to cleft lip and palate

Grant number: 18/00606-0
Support type:Scholarships in Brazil - Scientific Initiation
Effective date (Start): July 01, 2018
Effective date (End): December 31, 2018
Field of knowledge:Health Sciences - Dentistry
Principal Investigator:Ana Lucia Pompeia Fraga de Almeida
Grantee:Giovana Tolentino Fabricio
Home Institution: Hospital de Reabilitação de Anomalias Craniofaciais (HRAC). Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Bauru , SP, Brazil

Abstract

Facial development occurs very early in pregnancy, before the tenth week, and during this period many pregnant women may be exposed to teratogenic agents. Disturbance to any of the developmental processes occurring in this period may predispose to cleft lip and / or palate. The etiology of cleft lip and palate is complex and heterogeneous, an dstudies suggest that genetic and environmental risk factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of cleft lip and palate. Some teratogenic agents, including maternal smoking, alcohol consumption and vitamins intake (protective factor), produced statistical evidence of gene-environment interaction and may modify the risk of developing cleft lip and palate. Other reported risk factors include occupational and chemical exposures, stress, maternal age, ionizing radiation, and certain medications. Further epidemiological studies are needed to investigate the environmental factorsinvolved in the development of cleft lip and palate. Identification of these environmental factors involved in the pathogenesis of clefts is crucial for the formulation of preventive strategies. Thus, this studyaims to investigate the prenatal history and six months prior to conception on 150 mothers of children with non-syndromic cleft lip and / or palate aged up to 1 year and 3 months, routinely attending the Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies of University of São Paulo, and a control group of 150 mothers of children without clefts recruited in municipal schools (EMEIs) in the city of Bauru. An interview will be conducted with questions regarding possible teratogenic agents, including stress, active or passive exposure to tobacco, use of alcohol, use of drugs, use of anticonvulsants, maternal age at conception, housing stability, social support, occupational and chemical exposure. Data will be statistically significant with 5%.