The advent of modern energy system has promoted an increased number of electric vehicles (EVs) and other distributed energy resources (DERs) in power systems. This development has triggered new and increasing challenges in the distribution system planning and operation where distribution systems must adapt to the increased share of DERs. Hence, distribution systems are required to assume new responsibilities and procure additional services in an attempt to maintain high-quality services for end users. These services can potentially be provided by energy storage systems, including stationary batteries and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) enabled EVs by controlling either their active or reactive power, considering the new inverters' capabilities. The main objective of this research project is to develop a mathematical optimization method for modern electrical distribution systems (EDSs) considering the integration of EVs and stationary batteries into distribution networks. The optimization method should consider three-phase unbalanced distribution networks aiming a more realistic representation of EDSs. Additionally, it should consider the uncertainties associated with the conventional and EV demands, renewable energy sources and energy prices. The control mechanisms should consider V2G enabled EVs to maximize their flexibility when providing different services to distribution system operators (DSOs) e.g., congestion management, voltage support, unbalance reduction, etc. This technology makes it possible for EVs to consume or inject power into the network. The mathematical models will be implemented using the mathematical programing language AMPL and the operation of the system will be evaluated through the OpenDSS software.
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