Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disease that impairs bone repair. DM is characterized by hyperglycemia that results in an increase in osteoclast activity associated with a decrease in osteoblast differentiation and activity, increasing the risk of bone fractures and impairing functional aesthetic rehabilitation of the bone defects. The mechanisms by which diabetes affects bone health are not elucidated, but some hypotheses have been investigated, including the amount of oxidative stress and the fate of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). MSC are multipotent cells with the potential to differentiate into a variety of cells, including osteoblasts and adipocytes. Recent studies have indicated that MSC isolated from diabetic states have shown a greater propensity to differentiate into adipocyte (AD) instead of osteoblasts (OB). Photobiomodulation therapy (PBM) is a non-invasive treatment that decreases oxidative stress and has been related to a decrease of the hyperglycemic state and an increase of the bone repair process. Based on results from our group that showed that PBM recovers the osteogenic potential of diabetic MSCs, we aim to evaluate whether PBM is able to regulate adipocytic differentiation under hyperglycemic conditions. MSCs will be obtained from the bone marrow of diabetic and non-diabetic rats. After expansion, MSC will be treated with PBM and differentiated into AD and OB. The osteogenic and adipogenic potentials will be assessed for up to 21 days to evaluate cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, production of the mineralized extracellular matrix, lipid accumulation and gene expression of the bone and adipose tissue markers. The data will be submitted to the test of adherence to the normal curve to determine the appropriate statistical test. The results of our this study will clarify the potential effects of local and systemic PBM on the osteogenic potential of MSC and thereby understand the mechanisms that negatively affect bone tissue in DM. Our results may contribute to the development of therapeutic approaches to optimize aesthetic-functional reconstructions of bone defects in diabetic patients.
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