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Study of physicochemical characteristics of textile vegetal fibers from Malvaceae species.

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Barbara Maria Gama Guimarães
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Master's Dissertation
Press: São Paulo.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades (EACH)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Júlia Baruque Ramos; Waldir Mantovani; Holmer Savastano Junior
Advisor: Júlia Baruque Ramos

Vegetal fibers can be employed not only for fabrics, but also for the production of yarns, ropes, nonwovens and composites substituting those ones manufactured from wood or synthetic materials whereas Brazil has a great variety of natural fibers. The present study had as main objective the physicochemical characterization of six textile vegetal fibers of species from Malvaceae family: Sida rhombifolia L.; Sida carpinifolia L. f.; Sida cordifolia L.; Sidastrum paniculatum (L.) Fryxell; Malvastrum coromandelianum (L.) Gurck and Wissadula subpeltata (Kuntze) R. E. Fries. Tensile physical tests (resistance and elongation); optical microscopy (with and without iodine solution); moisture and regain contents; chemical combustion tests; aqueous extract pH; the effects of organic solvent, alkali, acid were carried out. In addition DSC, TGA, SEM, FTIR tests, polarized light microscopy, density and degree of polymerization tests were performed. The values of tenacity (21-33 cN/tex), elongation (2-3%) and Young s modulus (10-20 N/tex) are compatible with those ones from natural fibers of recognized textile employability, exception Sida rhombifolia L. (12 cN/tex). The results of optical and SEM microscopies, combustion and regain (10-18 %) are consistent with those of other cellulosic fibers. The FTIR tests confirmed the presence of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, whereas DSC and TGA tests showed endothermic peak temperatures and composition values of hemicellulose (285-337oC ; 10-15%) , -cellulose (360-365oC ; 55-60%) and lignin (420-425oC , 11- 27%), which are consistent with those reported in the literature for other lignocellulosic fibers. Taking in account these temperatures, the possibility of employing the studied fibers in thermoplastic composites is very limited. However, because no significant mass change after treatment with organic solvent, there is indication that the fibers of the present study could be employed in thermoset plastic composites. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 12/05784-7 - Study of the physicochemical characteristics of textile vegetal fibers from Malvaceae family
Grantee:Bárbara Maria Gama Guimarães
Support Opportunities: Scholarships in Brazil - Master