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Changes in the bacterial and fungal communities structures in Podzols under distinct drainage regimes

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Author(s):
Elisa Rabelo Matos
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: Piracicaba.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Marcio Rodrigues Lambais; Lucas Carvalho Basilio de Azevedo; Simone Raposo Cotta; Giselle Gomes Monteiro Fracetto; Pablo Vidal Torrado
Advisor: Marcio Rodrigues Lambais
Abstract

Podzols are highly frequent soils in the coastal plains of the São Paulo State, and are characterized by the presence of a spodic horizon (Bh or Bhm). Studies on the pedogenetic processes in Podzols of tropical regions are scarce, as well as studies on the molecular characterization of their organic matter (OM) and on the microorganisms involved in their genesis. It is possible that microorganisms involved in the selective degradation of the soil OM are important for the genesis of Podzols, as previously observed in Podzols of Bertioga and Ilha Comprida. The aim of the first study was to evaluate the spatial variation of the community structure and abundance of bacterial and fungi in the different horizons, bleached mottles and their immediate vicinity of three Podzol profiles under intermediary drainage regime, using PCR-DGGE and qPCR of the bacterial rRNA 16S gene and fungal ITS region. The aim of the second study was to determine the spatial variability of the bacterial communities in the horizons and bleached mottles of Podzols under three drainage regimes, and whether the bacterial genetic diversity and community structure were associated to the molecular OM composition, using high-throughput sequencing of the V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and analyses of organic compounds by pyrolysis GC/MS. The structure of bacterial communities, determined by PCRDGGE, in the different horizons of each soil profile were more similar to each other than in the same horizons of different soil profiles. The fungal community structures did not show significant differences, independent of the soil profile location and horizons depth. Abundance of copies of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal ITS region, determined by qPCR, was higher in the A horizon than in the Bh horizon, for the three Podzol profiles studied. Even though there were no significant differences in community structures, specific groups of bacteria and fungi may be involved in the selective degradation of organic matter in different horizons, bleached mottles and their immediate vicinity. The bacterial community structures, determined by highthroughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, in the surface horizons (A and AE) were distinct of that in the deeper horizons (EB, BE and Bh). However, the bacterial community structures in the bleached mottles and their immediate vicinity were more similar to each other than to the community structures in the horizons, in all profiles studied, regardless of the drainage regime. Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the most abundant phyla in the soils studied. Actinobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria showed a positive relationship organic compounds derived from lignin degradation, which were more abundant in the surface horizons (A and AE), whereas Acidobacteria showed a positive relationship with more recalcitrant compounds detected in deeper horizons (Bh), suggesting a specific and distinct roles of each bacterial group in the degradation of specific organic compounds. The results of these studies suggest that specific bacterial groups may be involved in the genesis of Podzols by degrading specific organic compounds in different horizons. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 11/23448-1 - Microorganisms and microbial processes related to Spodosols formation
Grantee:Elisa Rabelo Matos
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate