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Neuro-immune interactions involved in the genesis of herpetic and postherpetic nociceptive hypersensitivity

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Author(s):
Jaqueline Raymondi Silva
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: Ribeirão Preto.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Fernando de Queiroz Cunha; Yara Cury; Juliano Ferreira; Benedito Antonio Lopes da Fonseca
Advisor: Fernando de Queiroz Cunha
Abstract

Herpes Zoster is a disease caused by reactivation of varicella zoster virus in sensory ganglia, characterized by dermal rash and pain. There are no animal models available to study the pathophysiology of the disease. A murine model of HSV-1 infection on the hind paw skin has been used to study HZ, since mice develop HZ-like skin lesions and pain-related responses. There are no data available about the immune response in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of these mice. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate cells and inflammatory mediators present in DRGs and its relationship with hiperalgesia during HSV-1 cutaneous infection. During the acute phase of infection, mice developed hyperalgesia in ipsilateral paws from 3 days post-infection, which persisted until 7 days post-infection. The highest viral load was detected in ganglia L4, L5 and L6. Treatment of infected mice with fucoidin or dexamethasone resulted in the reduction of hyperalgesic behavior, from the 5th post-infection day, which corresponds to the period in which leukocyte migration increase in the dorsal root ganglia. Macrophages, neutrophils and CD4 + T lymphocytes were detected in the ganglia during acute infection. However, CD8 + T lymphocytes were absent. The mRNA expression of TNF- and COX-2 was increased in dorsal root ganglia, and the treatment of infected mice with drugs that inhibits both mediators resulted in reduced hyperalgesia. The Toll-like receptors and IL-1 does not participate in the generation of herpetic hypersensitivity. After 50 days of infection, it was found that some animals presented irreversible hyperalgesic behavior, like human post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). There was no significant difference in the incidence of PHN in animals of different genders or strains. Furthermore, treatment with anticonvulsant and antidepressant drugs, but not morphine and anti-inflammatory, resulted in transient reduction of hyperalgesia. In this period, there is no participation of inflammation in the hyperalgesia maintenance of. The expression of TNF- and COX-2 returns to baseline levels, and neutrophils and macrophages are no longer detected. However, the migration of CD4 + and CD8 + to ganglia increases in a time-dependent manner. During NPH, an intense activation of glial cells satellites was detected, that contributes to the maintenance of post-herpetic hyperalgesia. Our results demonstrate that herpetic hyperalgesia maintenance is a result of an intense inflammatory response that occurs in the infected dorsal root ganglia, with increased production of TNF- and COX-2. However, during post-herpetic neuralgia, there is involvement of glial cells, which are important in hyperalgesia maintenance. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 10/12309-8 - Role of the inflammatory immune response in the development of herpetic and post herpetic hypernociception
Grantee:Jaqueline Raymondi Silva
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate