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Geographic analysis of preterm birth in the state of São Paulo, in the SPMA and São Paulo\'s municipality

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Author(s):
Marina Jorge de Miranda
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: São Paulo.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas (FFLCH/SBD)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Ligia Vizeu Barrozo; Francisco Chiaravalloti Neto; Carmen Simone Grilo Diniz; Luiz Alberto Amador Pereira; Ana Paula Santana Rodrigues
Advisor: Ligia Vizeu Barrozo
Abstract

Prematurity is a serious public health issue, increasing significantly the child morbidity and mortality cases, especially in developing countries such as Brazil. A premature or preterm birth is defined when the birth occurs with less than 37 gestational weeks. While the individual risk factors associated with the incidence of prematurity are known, contextual factors able to impact it have not been given the same attention. It is known that prematurity is influenced by the ethnic group and socio-economic, environmental and cultural conditions experienced by the mother. In this context, the present thesis aimed to analyze the spatial distribution patterns of the relative risk of premature birth, through exploratory spatial data analysis, in three different spatial scales: the state of São Paulo (SP), the São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), and in the intra-urban scale of the municipality of São Paulo (SPM). The time period studied ranged from 2002 to 2007 (SP), 2000 to 2010 (SPMA) and 2002 to 2013 (SPM). We investigated how the geographical context has affected the relative risk of preterm birth through global and local spatial association tests (Morans I and LISA) for the state of SP and the SPMA. Using the global multivariate regression (OLS) and the geographically weighted regression (GWR), we studied which explanatory variables best explained, spatially, the risk of preterm birth in the state of SP (dependent variable). The explanatory variables (independent) were represented by the socioeconomic conditions of the mothers and were measured by the sociospatial deprivation index (DPi), as well as the health system access by the mothers and premature infants, represented by the number of caesarian deliveries, number of prenatal testings above 7 and number of newborn emergency entries by 1000 live births. For that, we used data from the national Live Birth System (SINASC) from the Ministry of Health (DATASUS), socioeconomic data from the SEADE foundation, and newborn and maternal health access data from the National Registry of Health Facilities (CNEs) from Brazil. Both the preterm birth relative risks and the socioeconomic variables presented significant global spatial autocorrelation. There was significant spatial local association between the premature birth relative risks with all socioeconomic variables tested for the state of SP and for the SPMA. The geographical distribution of such associations occurred in a non-random pattern, and heterogeneously distributed through the territory of the state of SP and the SPMA, revealing the strong and complex relation between the newborn health indicators and the socioeconomic conditions to which their mothers are subject. The number of emergency entries was the statistically significant variable form the global model that best explained the geographical distribution of the preterm birth relative risks in the state of SP. The GWR helped to identify locally which municipalities of the state presented higher risks of preterm birth due to the sociospatial deprivation index, the number of caesarian deliveries, number of prenatal testings above 7 and number of newborn emergency entries by 1000 live births. (AU)