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Effects of the exposure to atmospheric particulate matter on the development of LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI)

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Natalia de Souza Xavier Costa
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Master's Dissertation
Press: São Paulo.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Faculdade de Medicina (FM/SBD)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Luiz Fernando Ferraz da Silva; Maria Lucia Zaidan Dagli
Advisor: Luiz Fernando Ferraz da Silva

Epidemiological and experimental studies show that the air pollution can cause several harmful outcomes to the health, which include systemic and pulmonary inflammation, cardiovascular diseases, and exacerbation of preexisting diseases. The acute respiratory distress syndrome is characterized by intense inflammatory response, alveolo-capillary barrier damage and hypoxemia and since it was described for the first time in 1967 it still has high mortality rates. This study aims to 1. Evaluate the impact of urban air pollution exposure on the acute lung injury progression and 2. Evaluate if the LPS-induced injury is altered in an individual previously exposed to the air pollution. The main findings regarding objective 1 show that when there is an interaction of the particulate matter on the acute phase of LPS-induced injury, the lesion is not as severe as in the group that received only LPS. The inflammatory parameters show that inflammatory cells and pro inflammatory cytokines are increased in the LPS 24 hour, whereas not, or not as much as, in the air pollution + LPS group. Based on these results, we can hypothesize that may have occurred a shift of the inflammatory profile or immunotoxicity. Results of the objective 2 show that the group LPS + air pollution remains in a persistent inflammatory condition with increased leucocytes in BALF and pro inflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-6 e IL-8) also increased in the lung tissue, while the LPS 5 weeks group shows these parameters levels closer to the control group. The tissue morphology displays a diminished alveolar air space and septal thickening. It is very likely that the air pollution interferes on the adequate LPS-induced lesion recovery and repair, once that the air pollution, specially the fine particulate matter, has a continuous pro-inflammatory role over the lesion. We can conclude that: the use of nebulized LPS is a feasible acute lung injury model; the exposure to the particulate matter could alter the profile of the immediate response (24 hours) of the acute lung injury and it can impair the lesion recovery. Additional studies are necessary to understand the possible role of the immunological response modulation mechanisms involved in these processes (AU)