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Comparative evaluation of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids on productive performance, embryo and oocyte quality, and blood profile of dairy cows throughout the transition period and early lactation

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Author(s):
Gustavo Delfino Calomeni
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: Pirassununga.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Francisco Palma Rennó; Jefferson Rodrigues Gandra; Ed Hoffmann Madureira; Anselmo Domingos Ferreira Santos; Marcos Veiga dos Santos
Advisor: Francisco Palma Rennó
Abstract

The aim of the current experiment was to evaluate the saturated and unsaturated fatty acid supplementation effects on metabolism, productive and reproductive performance during the transition period and early lactation of dairy cows. Thirty-six Holstein cows were randomly distributed to one of three experimental treatments. Throughout the pre-partum period cows received: Control (CON), no fat supplement with 2.8% of ether extract (EE) on DM basis; Saturated fat (SAT) MAGNAPAC® (Tectron Ltda.), addition of 2.4% of MAGNAPAC and 4.7% of EE on DM basis; Unsaturated fat (UNS) Whole soybeans, addition of 11% of whole raw soybeans and 4.7% of EE in DM basis. In post-partum period the diets follows: Control (CON), no fat supplementation with 2.8% of ether extract (EE) in DM basis; Saturated fat (SAT) MAGNAPAC ® (Tectron Ltda.), addition of 2.6% of MAGNAPAC and 5.0% of EE in DM basis; Unsaturated fat (UNS) Whole soybeans, addition of 13% of whole raw soybeans and 5.0% of EE in DM Basis. The treatments were supplied from day 35 of expect calving date until 90 days in milk. During the pre-partum period, diet forage to concentrate ratio was 70:30, in which corn silage was used as the forage source. During the post-partum period, diet forage to concentrate ratio was 50:50, in which Tifton hay (5%) and corn silage (45%) were used as forage sources. The milk yield was daily measured during all experimental period. The samples used for milk composition and milk fatty acid profile were collected once a week, milk from the morning and evening milking being mixed proportionally to the milk yield. Blood samples for metabolites analysis were collected weekly before the morning feeding. Follicular dynamic was monitored by trans ´rectal ultrasonography form 14 until 90 days in milk. Ovum pick-up and in vitro fertilization were performed on days 30, 60, 90 post-partum. Data were analyzed using the PROC MIXED procedure of SAS (2004). Differences among treatments were evaluated by orthogonal contrasts as follows: Control vs Fat sources (C1), and Saturated fatty acid source vs Unsaturated fatty acid source (C2). Significance level was set at 5%. In postpartum, fat supplementation increased NEFA concentrations when compared to control diet. The UNS treatment reduced total protein concentration in blood compared to SAT. Diet*time interaction effect was observed in total cholesterol, LDL and BHB. The UNS decreased fat corrected milk, fat content, milk protein and fat yield compared to SAT. Fat supplementation decreased Σ Saturated F.A, fatty acids lower than 16 C and the relationship between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and increased the concentration of fatty acids higher than 16 C, unsaturated fatty acids with 18 C, and Σ PUFA. UNS increased Σ PUFA and decreased fatty acids with 16 C, when compared to SAT. Fat supplementation decreased class 1 follicle and total follicles. Treatments did not affect embryo and oocyte quality. Supplementation of unsaturated fat, through supplementation of whole raw soybean for cows in the transition period and early lactation did not affect the reproductive performance (follicular dynamics and oocyte and embryo quality) and reduced the productive performance due to decrease of milk fat production and fat corrected milk for 3.5% of the supplemented animals (AU)

FAPESP's process: 12/03264-6 - Comparative evaluation of supplemental saturated and unsaturated fatty acids on the performance, oocyte and embryo quality and immune function of dairy cows during the transition period and early lactation
Grantee:Gustavo Delfino Calomeni
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate