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In vitro characterization of metabolism and intestinal absorption of casearin X

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Rodrigo Moreira da Silva
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: Ribeirão Preto.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto (PCARP/BC)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Cristiane Masetto de Gaitani; Isabel Cristina Sales Fontes Jardim; Dioneia Camilo Rodrigues de Oliveira; Rosangela Gonçalves Peccinini
Advisor: Cristiane Masetto de Gaitani; Anderson Rodrigo Moraes de Oliveira

Casearia sylvstris leaves are commonly used by folk medicine and its main pharmacological properties were already described in the literature. Casearin X (CAS X) is the major clerodane diterpene isolated from the leaves of C. sylvestris. Recently, the in vitro cytotoxic activity of the CAS X was demonstrated against human tumor cells lineages. Despite promising results, the CAS X in vitro cytotoxic activity cannot be extrapolated to an in vivo activity, unless the compound has good bioavailability and desirable duration of its effect. The advance in natural products research requires a pharmacokinetic preclinical assessment to justify a therapeutic indication. Thereby, this present work aims to predict the CAS X in vivo bioavailability, by the in vitro characterization of the metabolism and intestinal absorption. The rat and human hepatic microsomal model was used for in vitro metabolism studies. An analytical method for quantification of CAS X in microsomes was developed, employing protein precipitation with acetonitrile for sample preparation and High Performance Liquid Chromatography for analysis. This method was validated in according to Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária and European Medicine Agency guidelines (EMA). CAS X demonstrated to be substrate for carboxylesterases (CES) by hydrolysis reaction, with a Michaelis-Menten kinetic profile. The parameters Vmax and KM was estimated and the intrinsic clearance was 1.7-fold higher in humans than rats. The hepatic clearance was estimated by in vitro-in vivo extrapolation, resulting in more than 90% of the hepatic blood flow for both species. A qualitative study was carried out for the metabolite identification, using Mass Spectrometry, suggesting the formation of casearin X dialdehyde as metabolism product. Monolayer of Caco-2 cells was used for the in vitro intestinal absorption studies. An analytical method by Liquid Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry was developed and validated, according to EMA, for the quantification of CAS X in cells systems. The apparent permeability was estimated in both, absorptive and secretory directions, using cells monolayers with inhibited CES hydrolysis. CAS X was able to cross the Caco-2 cells monolayer, probably by active transport, with no significant efflux, but with a high retention of the compound inside the cells. These findings demonstrated that CAS X is susceptible to first-pass metabolism, as substrate for specific CES expressed in both, liver and intestine. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 12/03446-7 - In vitro metabolism studies of the antitumor Clerodane diterpene casearin X
Grantee:Rodrigo Moreira da Silva
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate