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Analysis of amphetamine, cocaine and cannabis in oral fluid from truck drivers driving through highways in the state of Sao Paulo

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Author(s):
Henrique Silva Bombana
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Master's Dissertation
Press: São Paulo.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Faculdade de Medicina
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Vilma Leyton; Luiz Roberto de Oliveira Fontes; Marcelo Filonzi dos Santos
Advisor: Vilma Leyton
Abstract

In Brazil, in 2014 it caused more than 44 thousand deaths. In Brazil is already described in the literature the use of psychoactive substances by truck drivers to maintain their extensive work schedule and stay awake for several hours. Important highways cross through Sao Paulo to other regions from Brazil and to countries from Latin America. This study aims to demonstrate the prevalence of illicit drug use by truck drivers on the State of Sao Paulo through toxicological analyses on oral fluid. Truck drivers were randomly stopped by police officers on federal roads during morning hours. Oral fluid samples were collected using the Quantisal(TM) device. In addition, a questionnaire concerning sociodemographic characteristics and health information was administered. Oral fluid samples were screened for amphetamine, cocaine, and tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC) by ELISA. The samples were confirmed by GC-MS, using validated methods for the substances of interest. During the development of this study we had the opportunity to send the positive samples to the Norwegian Institute of Public Health for confirmation using UPLC-MS/MS. Besides cocaine, amphetamine and delta9-THC the samples were tested for others 29 samples, including illicit drugs and psychoactive medicines. 762 drivers agreed to participate. Of the total samples 5.2% (n = 40) tested positive for drugs. Cocaine was the most found drug (n = 16), followed by amphetamine (n = 11) and delta9-THC (n = 4). Furthermore, three samples tested positive for cocaine and delta9-THC and one sample for cocaine and amphetamine. The confirmation using UPLC-MS/MS pointed another two substances that were not tested previously, meprobamate and alprazolam (two samples tested positive for amphetamine and meprobamate, one for amphetamine and alprazolam and another one for cocaine and meprobamate). Drivers presenting positive samples were younger, with less education, less experienced, had a longer work schedule and drove longer distances. This fact shows that, undoubtedly, there is need for more national studies regarding the use of psychoactive substances, illicit and medicines, for a better understand by the scientific community and those responsible for implementation of public policies aiming the control of the use of these substances, in order to, one day, we were able to indeed reduce traffic accidents mortality in our country (AU)

FAPESP's process: 14/01824-0 - Analysis of amphetamine, cocaine and Cannabis in oral fluid from truck drivers driving through highways in the State of São Paulo
Grantee:Henrique Silva Bombana
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Master