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On the origin and spread of the bovine PLAG1 mutation

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Author(s):
Yuri Tani Utsunomiya
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: Jaboticabal. 2018-01-09.
Institution: Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp). Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias. Jaboticabal
Defense date:
Advisor: José Fernando Garcia
Abstract

The pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) presents both evidence of recent positive selection and association with body size and fertility in a wide range of worldwide cattle breeds. Considering its recently uncovered function as a transcription factor for the insulin-like growth factor 2 gene (IGF2), PLAG1 is emerging as a major regulator of bovine growth and reproduction. In spite of its importance, the causal DNA sequence variant underlying the pleiotropic effects of PLAG1 in cattle remains unknown. It is also unclear whether the same mutation accounts for the phenotype-genotype associations detected across different cattle populations. Furthermore, when and where the selective pressure responsible for increasing the frequency of the PLAG1 mutation occurred is still uncertain. Here, we report the development of a package for the R statistical software to analyze haplotypes as surrogates for unobserved genetic variants. By applying this tool to genomic data of worldwide cattle breeds, we found evidence that a single bovine PLAG1 derived allele increased rapidly in frequency in Northwestern European Bos taurus populations between the 16th and 18th centuries. This period is recognized as the last wave of increase in bovine stature from archaeological data. The data also suggested that the allele was introgressed into non-European B. taurus and Bos indicus breeds towards the 19th and 20th centuries, achieving an almost global distribution in the last century. Ancient DNA analyses further revealed that this mutation has been segregating in Northwestern European cattle for at least 1,000 years. Altogether, these results implicate a major role of the PLAG1 mutation in recent changes in body size in cattle. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 14/01095-8 - Use of next generation sequencing for the fine mapping of loci explaining variance in scrotal circumference in Nellore cattle
Grantee:Yuri Tani Utsunomiya
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate