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Modulation of intracellular concentration of NAD+ and its effect on benzo[a]pyrene-induced tumorigenesis in human epithelial bronchial cells

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Everson Willian Fialho Cordeiro
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: São Paulo.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Conjunto das Químicas (IQ e FCF) (CQ/DBDCQ)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Ana Paula de Melo Loureiro; Daiana Silva de Àvila; Flavia Carla Meotti; Eloiza Helena Tajara da Silva
Advisor: Ana Paula de Melo Loureiro

The high incidence, prevalence and mortality of lung cancer demonstrates the need to identify molecular changes involved in lung carcinogenesis. In this context, the reprogramming of energy metabolism is an emerging brand of cancer. There is evidence that benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a known human carcinogen, induces metabolic changes via modification of mitochondrial function both in vitro and in vivo. Since metabolic changes are not only the result of cell transformation, but can also play a role in the etiology of cancer by modulating the epigenome and gene expression, intervening in the metabolism of cells in the process of transformation can contribute to unravel mechanisms of carcinogenesis and reveal targets for chemoprevention. In order to investigate the relationship between changes in cell metabolism, epigenetic marks and cell transformation, we implemented a model of tumorigenesis (assessed by the formation of colonies on soft-agar) induced by B[a]P in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B cell line human) grown in monolayer (2D). The model enabled the observation of early changes in cell metabolism. Taking into account that the NAD+ nucleotide regulates the activities of several molecular pathways important for cell survival, differentiation, growth and death, and that their concentrations were rapidly decreased after exposure to B[a]P, we decided to supplement the BEAS-2B cells with nicotinamide riboside (NR), an intracellular precursor of NAD+, concomitantly with exposure to B[a]P. NR in low concentration in the culture medium (1 µM) induced energy stress in BEAS-2B cells exposed to B[a]P (1 µM) over the period of a week of co-incubation, selectively increasing the apoptosis rate of these cells. It protected against cell transformation induced by B[a]P and completely prevented the spontaneous formation of control cell colonies on soft-agar. We use a targeted metabolomics approach developed in the group to quantify metabolites known to be altered in cancer. The data indicate that NR decreases the glutamine metabolism in cells exposed to B[a]P, which occurs in parallel with the decrease in citrate and aspartate concentrations, increased malate/aspartate ratio, decreased ATP/AMP and ATP/ADP ratios and increased adenosine concentrations. The changes fit the hypothesis of inhibition of the malate-aspartate shuttle, whose activity is necessary for the survival of cells that suffer the Warburg effect (high dependence on cytosolic NADH for ATP generation). NR additionally protected cells against redox stress, DNA hypermethylation and increased B[a]P-induced sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) activity, in addition to increasing the expression of tumor suppressor genes (E-cadherin, PTEN, semaphorin 3F, p16 (ink4a)) that can be suppressed by CtBP (NADH-binding protein that acts as a redox sensor and translates the cell\'s metabolic condition to control gene expression). Higher PARP1 activity was also observed in cells exposed to B[a]P+NR compared to the other groups. The results obtained show that NR is opposed to or exacerbates biochemical changes induced by B[a]P, reducing the chance of carcinogenic transformation of BEAS-2B cells. Studies on more complex models, such as micro tissues in vitro, are necessary to confirm the chemopreventive effect of NR and underlying biochemical changes. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 16/08784-9 - Modulation of NAD+ intracellular concentration and its effect in the tumorigenesis induced by benzo[a]pyrene in human bronchial epithelial cells
Grantee:Everson Willian Fialho Cordeiro
Support Opportunities: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate (Direct)