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Esterase E3 gene evolution: selection effects and geographic distribution of mutations associated to insecticide resistance in Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

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Luana Walravens Bergamo
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Master's Dissertation
Press: Campinas, SP.
Institution: Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP). Instituto de Biologia
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Ana Maria Lima de Azeredo Espin; Iderval da Silva Sobrinho Júnior; Karina Lucas Silva Brandão
Advisor: Ana Maria Lima de Azeredo Espin; Pablo Fresia Coronel

Livestock production is an important economic activity in Brazil, but has been suffering significant losses due to the impact of parasites. The New World screwworm fly (NWS), Cochliomyia hominivorax, is an important ectoparasite and myiasis causing fly endemic from the Americas, which stands out in this scenario. The geographic distribution of NWS has been reduced after the implementation of the sterile insect technique (SIT), being considered eradicated in North and part of Central America. In South America, NWS is controlled by chemical insecticides, which indiscriminate use can cause the selection of resistant individuals. The Gly137Asp and Trp251Leu mutations in the active site of carboxylesterase E3 have been associated to resistance of diethyl and dimethyl organophosphates, respectively. The molecular characterization of this gene region comprising from the end of exon 2 to the end of exon 4 for C. hominivorax revealed that the intron I2 has a larger size than in other Muscomorpha species. The analysis of nucleotide composition and the comparisons between mutation-selection models by statistical methods of cDNA sequences of carboxylesterase E3 from C. hominivorax and other Muscomorpha showed signs of restrictive selection on synonymous substitutions. However, the observed pattern is not exclusive for this gene, being observed in other regions of the transcriptome. The selective pressures that have shaped E3 gene evolution from the point of view of non-synonymous mutations were investigated from a hierarchical strategy, considering interspecific and populational data. At first, in the investigation of long term response, the sequences of exons of C. hominivorax, Cochliomyia macellaria, Chrysomya megacephala and public sequences from other Muscomorpha were used. The relaxed branch-site and strict branch-site tests, together with the Bayes Empirical Bayes (BEB) method, indicated no sites under positive selection in the C. hominivorax branch. The analysis by MM01 method, which takes into account the physicochemical properties of amino acids, also detected no sign of selection. Secondly, in the investigation based on populational data, samples of C. hominivorax from 21 sites in South America were sequenced for a fragment of E3 gene previously characterized. The results of AMOVA and pairwise Fst indicate that there is structure between sites when considering sequences of E3 gene and CR, COI and COII mitochondrial genes. However, SAMOVA results showed a low correlation between genetic and geographic data, indicating that this specie has a complex population structure. Three genetic groups were distinguished between the sites by DAPC. Linkage disequilibrium tests were significant between the two mutations related to organophosphate insecticides resistance, indicating a negative association between them. An analysis based on outlier loci detection recovered sign of positive selection in one of the sites from the first codon associated with resistance (AU)

FAPESP's process: 11/15739-6 - Evolution of the esterase E3 gene: evaluation of the effects of selection and geographical distribution of mutations associated with resistance to insecticides in Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae)
Grantee:Luana Walravens Bergamo
Support Opportunities: Scholarships in Brazil - Master