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Phylogenetic analysis of Mydinae (Insecta, Diptera, Mydidae) based on morphological and molecular characters

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Author(s):
Julia Calhau Almeida
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: São Paulo.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Instituto de Biociências (IBIOC/SB)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Silvio Shigueo Nihei; Ricardo Pinto da Rocha; Daniela Maeda Takiya; Sergio Antonio Vanin
Advisor: Silvio Shigueo Nihei; Carlos José Einicker Lamas
Abstract

The Mydinae (Insecta, Diptera, Mydidae) occur only in the Americas and comprise 12 genera and 84 species, of which the vast majority of mydids occurring in Brazil belonging to this subfamily. Mydinae is currently divided into four tribes: Dolichogastrini, Messiasiini, Mydini and Phylomydini. The monophyly of the subfamily, as well as the monophyly of their tribes and genera, had not yet been tested by phylogenetic analysis. Concerning this fact, the objectives of this work are: 1) test the monophyly of the subfamily Mydinae, 2) check the phylogenetic relationship between Mydinae and other subfamilies of Mydidae, 3) test the monophyly of the tribes, subtribes and genera of Mydinae, as well as the monophyly of the species-groups of the genus Mydas; 4) propose a new classification of the subfamily based on phylogenetic results. The data from the external morphology of adults, and also DNA sequence of the COI gene, two methods of analysis were used: parsimony analysis with equal weighting of characters, and Bayesian probabilistic analysis. For each method, morphological and molecular data were analyzed separately and also in combination. The monophyly of Mydinae, as defined in the current classification, is not borne out in the present study. In both analyzes with morphological data, and Bayesian analysis with morphological and molecular data, a clade formed by all Mydinae (except Messiasia wilcoxi) + Paramydas (\'Apiophorinae\') was recovered. Among the tribes of Mydinae, the monophylies of Messiassiini and Mydini were not recovered. The genera Ceriomydas, Stratiomydas, Phyllomydas and Protomydas are recognized as natural groups. In the other hand, the genera Baliomydas, Gauromydas, Messiasia and Mydas did not form monophyletic groups in any of the conducted analyzes. Concerning the Mydas species-groups, only the interruptus group was recovered as monophyletic, although it is recognized here that color based characters traditionally used for separating the groups were not used in the present work. The subfamily Apiophorinae, with four species sampled, was not recovered as monophyletic, with genus Eumydas grouping to Rhopaliinae. The classification of Mydinae is reviewed here, but due to reasonable uncertainty as to the relationships between some groups, some taxa of the traditional classification were kept, although not recognized as monophyletic (AU)

FAPESP's process: 09/07803-6 - Phylogeny and biogeography of Mydinae (Diptera, Mydidae)
Grantee:Julia Calhau Almeida
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate