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Evaluation of microextraction techniques for sample preparation for the enantioselective analysis of chiral drugs with different acid-base characteristics in microsomal medium and application to in vitro metabolism studies

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Author(s):
Rodrigo Almeida Simões
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: Ribeirão Preto.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto (PCARP/BC)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Pierina Sueli Bonato; Fernando Barbosa Junior; Carmem Dickow Cardoso; José Alberto Fracassi da Silva
Advisor: Pierina Sueli Bonato
Abstract

In the present work, the microextraction techniques hollow-fiber liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME), dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and solid phase microextraction based on thin film (SPME/TFME) were used as sample preparation techniques to study the in vitro metabolism of chiral drugs with distinct acid-base characteristics. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) were used for the analyses. An enantioselective liquid chromatographic method using two-phase hollow- fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME-HPLC) was developed for the determination of isradipine (ISR) enantiomers and its main metabolite (pyridine derivative of isradipine - PDI) in microsomal fraction isolated from rat liver. The analytes were extracted from 1 mL of microsomal medium using a two-phase HF-LPME procedure with hexyl acetate as the acceptor phase, 30 min of extraction and sample agitation at 1500 rpm. For the first time, ISR enantiomers and PDI were resolved. For this separation, a Chiralpak AD® column with hexane:2-propanol:ethanol (94/04/02, v/v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.5 mL min-1 were used. The column was kept at 23 °C ± 2. The drug and metabolite detection was performed at 325 nm and the internal standard oxybutynin was detected at 225 nm. The recovery rates were 23% for PDI and 19% for each ISR enantiomer. The method presented quantification limits (LOQ) of 50 ng mL-1 and it was linear over the concentration range of 50-5000 ng mL-1 and 50-2500 ng mL-1 for PDI and each ISR enantiomer, respectively. The validated method was employed to an in vitro metabolism study of ISR using rat liver microsomal fraction, showing that (+)-(S)-ISR is preferentially metabolized. In the same way, a three-phase HF-LPME-HPLC method for the stereoselective determination of bufuralol metabolites, 1\'-oxobufuralol (1\'-Oxo-BF) and 1\'-hydroxybufuralol (1\'-OH-BF), in microsomal preparations is described for the first time. The HPLC analysis was carried out using a Chiralcel OD-H® column with hexane:2-propanol:methanol (97.5/2.0/0.5, v/v/v) plus 0.5% diethylamine as the mobile phase, and UV detection at 248 and 273 nm. The HF-LPME optimized conditions involved: n-octanol as the organic solvent, 0.2 mol L-1 acetic acid as the acceptor phase, donor phase pH adjusted to 13, sample agitation at 1500 rpm and extraction for 30 min. By using this extraction procedure, the recovery rates were in the range of 63- 69%. The method was linear over the concentration range of 100-5000 ng mL-1 for each enantiomer of 1\'-Oxo-BF and of 100-2500 ng mL-1 for each stereoisomer of 1\'-OH-BF. The quantification limits were 100 ng mL-1 for all analytes. The validated method was used to assess the in vitro metabolism of bufuralol using rat liver microsomal fraction that demonstrated predominant formation of (S)-1\'-Oxo-BF and (R,R)-1\'-OH-BF. A second basic drug addressed in this thesis is ranolazine (RNZ). For the chiral analysis of RNZ and one of its metabolites (desmethyl ranolazine - DRNZ) in microsomal fraction isolated from rat liver, an analytical enantioselective method using DLLME-LC-MS-MS was developed. The analytes were extracted from 0.5 mL of microsomal medium by DLLME. Chloroform was the extractor solvent and acetone the dispersive solvent. The enantiomers of RNZ and DRNZ were analyzed simultaneously for the first time using a Chiralcel OD-H® column and hexane:ethanol (60/40, v/v) plus 0.05% diethylamine as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min-1. Method validation showed recoveries in the order of 55 and 45% for the enantiomers iv of RNZ and DRNZ, respectively. The LOQs were 25 ng mL-1 for each RNZ enantiomers and 10 ng mL-1 for each DRNZ enantiomers. Linearity was established between 10-1000 ng mL-1 and 25-2500 ng mL-1 for each DRNZ and RNZ enantiomers, respectively. The validated method was employed to an in vitro metabolism study of RNZ using rat liver microsomal fraction, showing that the metabolism of RNZ is enantioselective. Finally, an analytical method was developed employing SPME/TFME-LC-MS-MS for the simultaneous analyses of the anphoteric drug repaglinide (RPG) and two of the its main metabolites 2-despiperidyl- 2-amino repaglinide (DA-RPG) and 2-despiperidyl-2-(5-carboxypentylamine) repaglinide (DC-RPG) in human microsomal fraction. The SPME/TFME procedure was carried out with the support of \"Multi Sampler SPME\" under the following conditions: conditioning of the blades with 1 mL of methanol:water (50/50, v/v) for 30 min, 60 min for extraction and 90 min for desorption with 1 mL of mobile phase. The LC-MS-MS analyses were performed using a C18 column under reversed phase conditions, with the mobile phase of acetonitrile:water (50/50, v/v) plus 0.1% acetic acid at a flow rate of 0.5 mL min-1. The method validation showed recoveries over 80% for all analytes. The LOQ was 2 ng mL-1 for all analytes, and the method was linear over the concentration range of 2 e 1000 ng mL-1 for RPG and of 2 a 500 ng mL-1 for DA-RPG and DC-RPG. The validated method was used to assess the in vitro metabolism profile of RPG by using human liver microsomes. These studies showed that the rate of formation of DA-RPG and DC-RPG depends on both microsomal protein concentration in the incubation medium and the incubation time. Furthermore, the results highlighted the possibility of formation of several other metabolites which have not been monitored. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 09/14916-1 - Evaluation of miniaturized techniques for sample preparation in the enantioselective analysis of chiral drugs with different acid-base characteristics in microsomal medium and application to in vitro metabolism studies
Grantee:Rodrigo Almeida Simões
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate (Direct)