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Sulfur in mitigating the toxic effects of cadmium in Tanzania guineagrass

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Author(s):
Flávio Henrique Silveira Rabêlo
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Master's Dissertation
Press: Piracicaba.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Francisco Antonio Monteiro; Patricia Bulbovas; Ciro Antonio Rosolem
Advisor: Francisco Antonio Monteiro
Abstract

Plants grown at medium and high cadmium availability has produced low number of leaves and tillers due to the great amount of cadmium absorbed, resulting in lower biomass production. Sulfur supply to plants may mitigate negative effects caused by cadmium, since compounds containing sulfur participate of the antioxidative plant system, resulting in greater tolerance to heavy metals. This study evaluated changes in: i) morphological, morphogenesis and productive aspects, ii) nutritional status, and iii) response of the antioxidative system of Tanzania guineagrass (Panicum maximum) grown under combined sulfur rates (0.1; 1.0, 1.9, 2.8 and 3.7 mmol L-1) and cadmium rates (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mmol L-1) in nutrient solution. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse, by using a fractionated factorial 5², in randomized block design, with six replications. The first harvest of Tanzania guineagrass was performed at 40 days after seedlings transplanting to the pots, and the second at 18 days after the first harvest. Mortality rate of tillers, SPAD value, cadmium concentration and APX activity (second harvest) of Tanzania guineagrass had statistically significant sulfur rates x cadmium rates interaction, since that sulfur supply mitigate the mortality rate, decreased the amount of cadmium absorbed and increased SPAD value and the APX activity. The water content, number of tillers, tiller emergence rate, number of leaf, leaf area, leaf emergence rate, ratio of leaf area, dry mass of shoots and roots, SPAD value, potassium concentration, GSH content and CAT activity decreased with the cadmium supply in the nutrient solution. Contrary to that, nitrogen, phosphorus, zinc and cadmium concentrations were increased as well as the transporting factor of cadmium, GSSG and glutathione contents and APX activity. Sulfur supply increased sulfur concentration in shoots of Tanzania guineagrass and the effects of cadmium were more pronounced during the plant regrowth period, especially under high availability of the heavy metal. Isoforms of CAT and GR showed higher abundance in shoots compared to roots, suggesting higher effectiveness of such tissue in avoiding oxidative damage caused by high concentrations of cadmium. Thus, sulfur supply to the Tanzania guineagrass grown in environment with high cadmium availability is indicated to increase tolerance to this heavy metal. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 12/12894-3 - Sulfur and cadmium combinations related to the morphogenetic, metabolic and productive parameters of tanzania guineagrass
Grantee:Flávio Henrique Silveira Rabêlo
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Master