Jeckel, Adriana M.
Saporito, Ralph A.
Total Authors: 3
 Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Biociencias, Dept Zool, BR-05508090 Sao Paulo - Brazil
 John Carroll Univ, Dept Biol, University Hts, OH 44118 - USA
Total Affiliations: 2
Journal of Chemical Ecology;
Web of Science Citations:
Bufonid poison frogs of the genus Melanophryniscus contain alkaloid-based chemical defenses that are derived from a diet of alkaloid-containing arthropods. In addition to dietary alkaloids, bufadienolide-like compounds and indolealkylamines have been identified in certain species of Melanophryniscus. Our study reports, for the first time, the co-occurrence of large quantities of both alkaloids sequestered from the diet and an endogenously biosynthesized indolalkylamine in skin secretions from individual specimens of Melanophryniscus moreirae from Brazil. GC/MS analysis of 55 individuals of M. moreirae revealed 37 dietary alkaloids and the biosynthesized indolealkylamine bufotenine. On average, pumiliotoxin 267C, bufotenine, and allopumilitoxin 323B collectively represent ca. 90 % of the defensive chemicals present in an individual. The quantity of defensive chemicals differed between sexes, with males possessing significantly less dietary alkaloid and bufotenine than females. Most of the dietary alkaloids have structures with branched-chains, indicating they are likely derived from oribatid mites. The ratio of bufotenine:alkaloid quantity decreased with increasing quantities of dietary alkaloids, suggesting that M. moreirae might regulate bufotenine synthesis in relation to sequestration of dietary alkaloids. (AU)