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(Reference retrieved automatically from Web of Science through information on FAPESP grant and its corresponding number as mentioned in the publication by the authors.)

GaAs laser therapy reestablishes the morphology of the NMJ and nAChRs after injury due to bupivacaine

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Author(s):
Alessi Pissulin, Cristiane Neves ; Tome de Souza Castro, Paula Aiello ; Codina, Flavio ; Pinto, Carina Guidi ; Vechetti-Junior, Ivan Jose ; Michelin Matheus, Selma Maria
Total Authors: 6
Document type: Journal article
Source: JOURNAL OF PHOTOCHEMISTRY AND PHOTOBIOLOGY B-BIOLOGY; v. 167, p. 256-263, FEB 2017.
Web of Science Citations: 5
Abstract

Background: Local anesthetics are used to relieve pre- and postoperative pain, acting on both sodium channels and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Bupivacaine acts as a non-competitive antagonist and has limitations, such as myotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and inflammation. Lowlevel laser therapy (LLLT) has anti-inflammatory, regenerative, and analgesic effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a gallium arsenide laser (GaAs) on the morphology of the NMJ and nAChRs after application of bupivacaine in the sternomastoid muscle. Methods: Thirty-two adult male Wistar rats received injections of bupivacaine 0.5% (Bupi: right antimere) and 0.9% sodium chloride (Cl: left antimere). Next, the animals were divided into a Control group (C) and a Laser group (LLLT). The laser group received LLLT (GaAs 904nm, 50mW, 4,8J) in both antimeres for five consecutive days. After seven days, the animals were euthanized and the surface portion of the stemomastoid muscle was removed, frozen, and subjected to morphological and morphometric analyses of the NMJs (nonspecific esterase reaction), confocal laser scanning, and an ultrastructural analysis. The nAChRs were quantified by Western blotting. Results: In the chloride group, the morphology and morphometry of the NMJs remained stable. The maximum diameters of the NMJs were lower in the Bupi (15.048 +/- 1.985) and LLLT/Bupi subgroups (15.456 +/- 1.983) compared to the Cl (18.502 +/- 2.058) and LLLT/CI subgroups (19.356 +/- 2.522) (p <0.05). Ultrastructurally, LLLT reduced myonecrosis observed after application of bupivacaine, with recovery in the junctional folds and active zone. There was an increase in the perimeter of the LLLT/Bupi subgroup (150.33) compared to the Bupi subgroup (74.69) (p < 0.01) observed by confocal microscopy. There was also an increase in the relative planar area of the NMJ after LBI (8.75) compared to CBupi (4.80) (p < 0.01). An analysis of the protein expression of nAChRal showed no major differences in the groups studied. There was an increase in protein expression of the s subunit after application of LLLT (13.055) compared to Bupi (0.251) (p < 0.01). Taken together, the present experiments indicate that there was a positive association of the a and y subunits (p < 0.05). Conclusions: These results demonstrate that LLLT at the dose used in this study reduced structural alterations in the NMJ and molecular changes in nAChRs triggered by bupivacaine, providing important data supporting the use of LILT in therapeutic protocols for injuries triggered by local anesthetics. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 13/26649-3 - Evaluation of myotoxicity and neurotoxicity ( neuromuscular junction focus ) after bupivacaine application followed by laser therapy
Grantee:Selma Maria Michelin Matheus
Support type: Regular Research Grants