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(Reference retrieved automatically from Web of Science through information on FAPESP grant and its corresponding number as mentioned in the publication by the authors.)

Characteristics of sulfasalazine-induced cytotoxicity in C6 rat glioma cells

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Author(s):
Ignarro, Raffaela Silvestre ; Facchini, Gustavo ; de Melo, Daniela Rodrigues ; Pelizzaro-Rocha, Karin Juliane ; Ferreira, Carmen Verissima ; Castilho, Roger Frigerio ; Rogerio, Fabio
Total Authors: 7
Document type: Journal article
Source: Neuroscience Letters; v. 638, p. 189-195, JAN 18 2017.
Web of Science Citations: 3
Abstract

Glioblastoma is the most aggressive primary brain tumor. Surgical resection, radiotherapy and temozolomide (TMZ), an alkylating agent, is the standard of care. Glioma cells may synthetize the antioxidant glutathione by importing cystine through a cystine/glutamate antiporter, which is inhibited by sulfasalazine (SAS). C6 rat glioma cells are largely used in in vitro and in vivo models for developing new glioblastoma treatment strategies. We treated C6 cells with 25 mu M TMZ and/or 0.25 mM or 0.5 mM SAS for 1, 3 or 5 days and evaluated viability, apoptosis, total glutathione levels and metalloproteinase MMP2 and MMP9 activities. TMZ treatment slightly reduced cell viability by 9.5% compared with vehicle treatment (0.1% dimethyl sulfoxide) only after 5 days. In addition, TMZ did not modify apoptosis, glutathione content or MMP2/MMP9 activities. The 0.25 mM SAS treatment reduced cell viability by 31.1% and 19.4% after the first and third days, respectively. This effect was not sustained after the fifth day of treatment. In contrast, 0.5 mM SAS caused a reduction in cell viability by nearly 100%, total glutathione depletion and apoptosis induction. Moreover, the effect of 0.5 mM SAS was greater than that of TMZ in terms of cell viability reduction, total glutathione depletion and apoptosis induction. MMP9 activity was reduced by 40% after 5 days of 25 mu M TMZ and 0.5 mM SAS co-administration. Considering previous data from our group, we verified that the cellular viability results differed between rat and human cells; C6 cells were more vulnerable to 0.5 mM SAS than human A172 and T98G glioblastoma lineages. We propose that C6 cells may not be appropriate for studying human glioblastoma and that the results obtained using these cells should be interpreted with caution. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 13/07559-3 - BRAINN - The Brazilian Institute of Neuroscience and Neurotechnology
Grantee:Fernando Cendes
Support type: Research Grants - Research, Innovation and Dissemination Centers - RIDC
FAPESP's process: 11/50400-0 - Mitochondrial energy metabolism, redox state and functionality in cell death and cardiometabolic and neurodegenerative disorders
Grantee:Aníbal Eugênio Vercesi
Support type: Research Projects - Thematic Grants
FAPESP's process: 13/02618-1 - Analysis of the oxidative stress induced by sulfasalazine associated with temozolomide in human and rat glioma cells
Grantee:Fábio Rogério
Support type: Regular Research Grants