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(Reference retrieved automatically from Web of Science through information on FAPESP grant and its corresponding number as mentioned in the publication by the authors.)

Molecular phylogeny and higher systematics of the metalmark butterflies (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae)

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Seraphim, Noemy [1, 2] ; Kaminski, Lucas A. [3] ; Devries, Philip J. [4] ; Penz, Carla [4] ; Callaghan, Curtis [5] ; Wahlberg, Niklas [6, 7] ; Silva-Brandao, Karina L. [8] ; Freitas, Andre V. L. [1]
Total Authors: 8
[1] Univ Estadual Campinas, UNICAMP, Inst Biol, Dept Biol Anim, Cidade Univ Zeferino Vaz, Caixa Postal 6109, BR-13083970 Campinas, SP - Brazil
[2] Inst Fed Educ Ciencia & Tecnol Sao Paulo, Campus Capivari, Ave Dr Enio Pires de Camargo 2971, BR-13360000 Capivari, SP - Brazil
[3] Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Inst Biociencias, Dept Zool, Porto Alegre, RS - Brazil
[4] Univ New Orleans, Dept Biol Sci, New Orleans, LA 70148 - USA
[5] Floresta Sabana, Casa Picapau, Bogota - Colombia
[6] Turku Univ, Dept Biol, Turku - Finland
[7] Lund Univ, Dept Biol, Lund - Sweden
[8] Univ Estadual Campinas, Ctr Biol Mol & Engn Genet, Campinas - Brazil
Total Affiliations: 8
Document type: Journal article
Source: Systematic Entomology; v. 43, n. 2, p. 407-425, APR 2018.
Web of Science Citations: 6

Riodinidae is a highly diverse butterfly family with the majority of its genera restricted to the Neotropics and, despite previous efforts, its higher systematics remains unresolved. Here, we propose a novel phylogenetic hypothesis, based on a comprehensive sample of riodinids, primarily from the Neotropics, covering 67% of all genera and all of the major lineages. We sequenced nine molecular markers and estimated resulting phylogenies with maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches, using both timed trees and time-independent trees. We based calibration on three fossil Riodinidae, and reassessed the position of the oldest fossil. We also incorporated 52 samples from a previous study providing a comprehensive maximum likelihood tree for 304 species comprising 80% of all genera. We propose a new higher classification of the Riodinidae with two subfamilies: the Nemeobiinae, including the Old World riodinids and their Neotropical sister Euselasia Hubner; and the Riodininae, comprising all remaining genera. We divided Riodininae into nine tribes (including four new tribes: Calydnini Seraphim, Freitas \& Kaminski trib.n.; Sertaniini Seraphim, Freitas \& Kaminski trib.n.; Dianesiini Seraphim, Freitas \& Kaminski trib.n.; and Emesidini Seraphim, Freitas \& Kaminski trib.n.), with Mesosemiini and Nymphidiini further subdivided into two and seven subtribes (including three new subtribes for Nymphidiini: Zabuellina Seraphim, Freitas \& Kaminski subtrib.n.; Pachythonina Seraphim, Freitas \& Kaminski subtrib.n.; and Pandemina Seraphim, Freitas \& Kaminski subtrib.n.). Although our phylogenetic hypotheses are generally congruent with the analyses by Espeland et al. (2015), the comprehensive taxon sampling employed here constitutes a large step towards a stable tribal-level classification. All taxonomic changes are summarized in a checklist. Despite most genera being restricted to tropical South and Central America, the oldest known fossil of Riodininae belongs to the Green River formation (42.6-50.2 Ma) in North America. Accordingly, we reassess the family's crown age at 56Ma (52.4-60.7 Ma), which is at variance with previous dating using secondary calibrations and a different subset of genes. Nonmonophyletic riodinid genera are ubiquitous, and several groups need further revision, including groups revised recently. Our results point to the need for integrative taxonomy, as adult morphology seems to be have been exhausted as a single data source in this family. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 11/50225-3 - Natural history, phylogeny and conservation of Neotropical Lepidoptera
Grantee:André Victor Lucci Freitas
Support type: BIOTA-FAPESP Program - Regular Research Grants
FAPESP's process: 12/50260-6 - Structure and evolution of the Amazonian biota and its environment: an integrative approach
Grantee:Lúcia Garcez Lohmann
Support type: BIOTA-FAPESP Program - Thematic Grants