Morais, William G.
Gomes, Wellington J. A. S.
Total Authors: 4
 Univ Sao Paulo, Fac Filosofia Ciencias & Letras Ribeirao Pret, Dept Quim, BR-14040910 Ribeirao Preto, SP - Brazil
Total Affiliations: 1
Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society;
Web of Science Citations:
Ever-rising energy demand, fossil fuel dependence, and climate issues have harmful consequences to the society. Exploring clean and renewable energy to diversify the world energy matrix has become an urgent matter. Less explored or unexplored renewable energy sources like the salinity and proton gradient energy are an attractive alternative with great energy potential. This paper discusses important electrochemical systems for energy conversion from natural and artificial concentration gradients, namely capacitive mixing (CapMix), mixing entropy batteries (MEB), and neutralization batteries (NB); the working principle and thermodynamic formalism of these systems; and the materials employed in the assembly of these systems. (AU)