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(Reference retrieved automatically from Web of Science through information on FAPESP grant and its corresponding number as mentioned in the publication by the authors.)

Protein and bone health across the lifespan

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Dolan, Eimear [1] ; Sale, Craig [2]
Total Authors: 2
[1] Univ Sao Paulo, Fac Med FMUSP, Appl Physiol & Nutr Res Grp, Escola Educ Fis & Esporte, Sao Paulo, SP - Brazil
[2] Nottingham Trent Univ, Sch Sci & Technol, Sport Hlth & Performance Enhancement Res Ctr, Musculoskeletal Physiol Res Grp, Nottingham - England
Total Affiliations: 2
Document type: Journal article
Source: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY; v. 78, n. 1, p. 45-55, FEB 2019.
Web of Science Citations: 4

Bone health is determined by the rate of accrual in early life, followed by the rate of age-associated bone loss. Dietary protein intake might have a role in bone health across both of these phases via pleiotropic mechanistic pathways. Herein we summarise the pathways through which protein may exert either a positive or negative influence on bone. In the introduction, we describe the acid-ash hypothesis, which states that a high-protein intake may lead to an acidic residue that must be neutralised through the leaching of calcium and other minerals from the bone, subsequently leading to demineralisation and bone weakening. Conversely, and as described in the `Against: mechanisms through which protein may negatively impact bone' section, protein intake may act to strengthen the bone by stimulating the activity of various anabolic hormones and growth factors, or by optimising muscle mass and functionality, which itself has an osteogenic influence. The net effect of these contrasting pathways is described in the `For: mechanisms through which protein may positively impact bone' section, where a number of meta-analyses have demonstrated that higher protein intakes have a small positive impact on bone mass and fracture risk. Sometimes higher than recommended protein intakes are advised, e.g. during the earlier and later phases of the lifespan or during reduced energy availability. We conclude that protein is an essential nutrient for bone health, although further research is required to clarify the mechanistic pathways through which it exerts its influence, along with the clarification of the quantities, food sources and timing to allow for the optimisation of this protective influence and ultimately a reduction in fracture risk. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 17/09635-0 - Factors determining the carnosine content of human skeletal muscle: Influence of age and sex
Grantee:Eimear Bernadette Dolan
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Post-Doctorate
FAPESP's process: 15/11328-2 - Carnosine metabolism in skeletal muscle: a multi-approach study. Substudy 3: exploring carnosine role in skeletal muscle
Grantee:Eimear Bernadette Dolan
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Post-Doctorate