Pescatore, Luciana A.
Gamarra, Lionel F.
Total Authors: 3
 Univ Sao Paulo, Fac Med, Hosp Clin HCFMUSP, Lab Biol Vasc, Inst Coracao InCor, Sao Paulo, SP - Brazil
 Hosp Israelita Albert Einstein, Avenida Albert Einstein 627, Floor 2SS, BR-05651 Sao Paulo, SP - Brazil
Total Affiliations: 2
ARTERIOSCLEROSIS THROMBOSIS AND VASCULAR BIOLOGY;
Web of Science Citations:
Approximately 20% of the world's population will be around or above 65 years of age by the next decade. Out of these, 40% are suspected to have cardiovascular diseases as a cause of mortality. Arteriosclerosis, characterized by increased vascular calcification, impairing Windkessel effect and tissue perfusion, and determining end-organ damage, is a hallmark of vascular pathology in the elderly population. Risk factors accumulated during aging affect the normal physiological and vascular aging process, which contributes to the progression of arteriosclerosis. Traditional risk factors, age-associated diseases, and respective regulating mechanisms influencing vascular calcification and vascular stiffness have been extensively studied for many years. Despite the well-known fact that aging alone can induce vascular damage, specific mechanisms that implicate physiological aging in vascular calcification, contributing to vascular stiffness, are poorly understood. This review focuses on mechanisms activated during normal aging, for example, cellular senescence, autophagy, extracellular vesicles secretion, and oxidative stress, along with the convergence of premature aging models' pathophysiology, such as Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria (prelamin accumulation) and Klotho deficiency, to understand vascular calcification in aging. Understanding the mechanisms of vascular damage in aging that intersect with age-associated diseases and risk factors is crucial to foster innovative therapeutic targets to mitigate cardiovascular disease. (AU)