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(Reference retrieved automatically from Web of Science through information on FAPESP grant and its corresponding number as mentioned in the publication by the authors.)

Stellar magnetic activity and the butterfly diagram of Kepler-63

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Netto, Y. [1] ; Valio, A. [1]
Total Authors: 2
[1] Univ Prebiteriana Mackenzie, CRAAM, Rua Consolacao 896, Sao Paulo - Brazil
Total Affiliations: 1
Document type: Journal article
Source: Astronomy & Astrophysics; v. 635, MAR 10 2020.
Web of Science Citations: 0

Context. The study of young solar-type stars is fundamental for better understanding the magnetic activity of the Sun. Most commonly, this activity manifests itself in the form of spots and faculae. As a planet in transit crosses in front of its host star, a dark spot on the stellar surface may be occulted, causing a detectable variation in the light curve. Kepler-63 is a young solar-like star with an age of only 210 Myr that exhibits photometric variations compatible with spot signatures. Because the planet that orbits it is in an almost polar orbit, different latitudes of the star can be probed by the method of spot transit mapping.Aims. The goal of this work is to characterise the spots of Kepler-63 and thus decipher the behaviour of the young Sun. Because planetary orbit is highly oblique, the latitudinal distribution and thus the differential rotation of the spots may be determined.Methods. A total of 150 transits of Kepler-63b were observed in the short-cadence light curve, corresponding to a total duration of about four years. Each transit light curve was fit by a model that simulates planetary transits and allows including starspots on the surface of the host star. This enables the physical characterisation of the spot size, intensity, and location. We determined the spot position in a reference frame that rotates with the star, and thus obtained the latitudinal distribution of the spots.Results. We fit a total of 297 spots and determined their sizes, intensities, and positions. The longitude and latitude of the spots were calculated in a reference frame that rotated with the star. The latitude distribution of spots exhibits a bimodality with a lack of spots around 34 degrees. Moreover, the spot sizes tend to be larger close to the equator, but decrease toward the latitude distribution gap, after which they again increase toward the poles. High-latitude spots dominate the magnetic cycle of Kepler-63. For a mean stellar rotation period of 5.400 d, 59 spots were found at approximately the same longitude and latitude on a later transit. Some of these spots were detected eight transits later. This shows that the lifetimes of spots can be at least 75 d.Conclusions. The geometry of the Kepler-63 system, enabled us to build a starspot butterfly diagram, similar to that of sunspots. It was also possible to infer the differential rotation of Kepler-63 from the spots at different latitudes. This star was found to rotate almost rigidly with a period of 5.400 d and a relative shear close to 0.01% for latitudes lower than 34 degrees, whereas the high latitudes do not follow a well-behaved pattern. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 13/10559-5 - Investigation of high energy and plasma astrophysics phenomena: theory, numerical simulations, observations, and instrument development for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA)
Grantee:Elisabete Maria de Gouveia Dal Pino
Support type: Research Projects - Thematic Grants