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(Reference retrieved automatically from Web of Science through information on FAPESP grant and its corresponding number as mentioned in the publication by the authors.)

Activation of stress response axis as a key process in environment-induced sex plasticity in fish

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Hattori, R. S. [1] ; Castaneda-Cortes, D. C. [2] ; Arias Padilla, L. F. [2] ; Strobl-Mazzulla, P. H. [2] ; Fernandino, J. I. [2]
Total Authors: 5
[1] UPD CJ APTA SAA, Salmonid Expt Stn Campos do Jordao, Campos Do Jordao - Brazil
[2] UNSAM, CONICET, Inst Tecnol Chascomus, Lab Biol Desarrollo, Chascomus - Argentina
Total Affiliations: 2
Document type: Review article
Web of Science Citations: 0

The determination of sex is an important hallmark in the life cycle of organisms, in which the fate of gonads and then the individual sex are defined. In gonochoristic teleost fish, this process is characterized by a high plasticity, considering that in spite of genotypic sex many environmental factors can cause shifts from one to another molecular pathway, resulting in organisms with mismatching genotypic and phenotypic sexes. Interestingly, in most instances, both female-to-male or male-to-female sex-reversed individuals develop functional gonads with normal gametogenesis and respective progenies with full viability. The study of these mechanisms is being spread to other non-model species or to those inhabiting more extreme environmental conditions. Although water temperature is an important mechanism involved in sex determination, there are other environmental stressors affected by the climate change which are also implicated in stress response-induced masculinization in fish. In this regard, the brain has emerged as the transducer of the environment input that can influence the gonadal fate. Furthermore, the evaluation of other environmental stressors or their synergic effect on sex determination at conditions that simulate the natural environments is growing gradually. Within such scope, the concerns related to climate change impacts rely on the fact that many of biotic and abiotic parameters reported to affect sex ratios are expected to increase concomitantly as a result of increased greenhouse gas emissions and, particularly worrying, many of them are related to male bias in the populations, such as high temperature, hypoxia, and acidity. These environmental changes can also generate epigenetic changes in sex-related genes affecting their expression, with implications on sex differentiation not only of exposed individuals but also in following generations. The co-analysis of multi-stressors with potential inter- and transgenerational effects is essential to allow researchers to perform long-term predictions on climate change impacts in wild populations and for establishing highly accurate monitoring tools and suitable mitigation strategies. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 14/50790-0 - Molecular regulation of germ cell proliferation: the effects of thermal stress and sex steroids and the roles of PEN-2, p53 and AMH genes
Grantee:Ricardo Shohei Hattori
Support type: Regular Research Grants
FAPESP's process: 18/20200-8 - Involvement of thyroid hormones on the proliferation, differentiation, and depletion of germ cells by high temperature
Grantee:Ricardo Shohei Hattori
Support type: Research Grants - Visiting Researcher Grant - International