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(Reference retrieved automatically from Web of Science through information on FAPESP grant and its corresponding number as mentioned in the publication by the authors.)

Identification keys to the Anopheles mosquitoes of South America (Diptera: Culicidae). IV. Adult females

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Mureb Sallum, Maria Anice [1] ; Obando, Ranulfo Gonzalez [2] ; Carrejo, Nancy [2] ; Wilkerson, Richard C. [3, 4, 5]
Total Authors: 4
[1] Univ Sao Paulo, Dept Epidemiol, Fac Saude Publ, Ave Doutor Arnaldo 715, BR-01246904 Sao Paulo, SP - Brazil
[2] Univ Valle, Dept Biologra, Cali 25360 - Colombia
[3] Walter Reed Army Inst Res, 503 Robert Grant Ave, Silver Spring, MD 20910 - USA
[4] Natl Museum Nat Hist NMNH, Dept Entomol, Smithsonian Inst, Washington, DC 20560 - USA
[5] Smithsonian Inst Museum Support Ctr, Walter Reed Biosystemat Unit, 4210 Silver Hill Rd, Suitland, MD 20746 - USA
Total Affiliations: 5
Document type: Journal article
Source: PARASITES & VECTORS; v. 13, n. 1 DEC 18 2020.
Web of Science Citations: 2

Background: Morphological identification of adult females of described species of the genus Anopheles Meigen, 1818 in South America is problematic, but necessary due to their differing roles in the transmission of human malaria. The increase in the number of species complexes uncovered by molecular taxonomy challenges accurate identification using morphology. In addition, the majority of newly discovered species have not been formally described and in some cases the identities of the nominotypical species of species complexes have not been resolved. Here, we provide an up-to- date key to identify Neotropical Anopheles species using female external morphology and employing traditionally used and new characters. Methods: Morphological characters of the females of South American species of the genus Anopheles were examined and employed to construct a species/group identification key. Photographs of key characters were obtained using a digital Canon Eos T3i, attached to a microscope. The program Helicon Focus was used to build single in-focus images by stacking multiple images of the same structure. Results: A morphological identification key to the adult females of species of the genus Anopheles described in South America is presented. Definitions and illustrations of the key characters are provided to facilitate use of key. Conclusions: Identification of species of the genus Anopheles based on female morphology is challenging because some key characters can be variable and overlapping among species. In addition, the majority of key characters are linked to color and shape of scales, their distribution on the head, scutum, abdomen, maxillary palpi, labium and legs, and pattern of pale and dark scales on dorsal and ventral surfaces of the wing veins. Thus, it is understandable that a specimen needs to be in good condition to be accurately identified. Morphologically similar species, such as those of the Konderi, Oswaldoi, Nuneztovari, Benarrochi and Albitarsis Complexes, and the Triannulatus and Strodei Groups, among others, cannot be accurately identified using characters included in the key. Further investigation will be required to exploit morphological characteristics for identification of members of those complexes, with formal description of new species. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 14/26229-7 - Latitudinal landscape genomics and ecology of Anopheles darlingi
Grantee:Maria Anice Mureb Sallum
Support type: Research Projects - Thematic Grants